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|عنوان فارسی مقاله:
|تجربه پوسیدگی دندان در کودکان پیش دبستانی – آیا مربوط به محل اقامت کودک و درآمد خانواده است؟
|عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
|Dental Caries Experience in Preschool Children – Is It Related to A Child’s Place of Residence and Family Income?
|رشته های مرتبط:
|پزشکی و دندانپزشکی، اپیدمیولوژی و تشخیص بیماری های دهان و دندان
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در سطح جهانی؛ در مباحث سلامت دهان پوسیدگی دندان در کودکان شیوع بیتری داشته است al, 2004).. (Bader et. بدلیل شیوع بالای ان در دنیا؛ پوسیدگی در کودکان اغلب به عنوان بیماری همه گیر توصیف می شود که نسبت بالای حفره های پوسیده دندان درمان نشده با درد؛ پریشانی و عدم عملکرد شناخته می شود.(Edelstein, 2006)
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
Globally, issues of oral health in children revolve predominantly around dental caries (Bader et al, 2004). Due to its high prevalence worldwide, caries in children has often been described as a ‘pandemic’ disease characterised by a high proportion of untreated carious cavities causing pain, distress and functional restrictions (Edelstein, 2006). In addition, these untreated carious lesions have a considerable impact on the general health of children, which influences the social and economic well-being of communities (Sheiham, 2006). It has been observed that untreated caries among children is more widespread in developing than in developed countries (Baelum et al, 2007). Pakistan is a developing country confronted with a rapid growth of urbanisation (Jan et al, 2008). Previous surveys of oral health in Pakistan indicate that more than 90% of all carious lesions are untreated (Khan, 1992; Haleem and Khan, 2001; Khan et al, 2004) and that this oral disease is equally prevalent in urban and rural areas (Khan et al, 2004). These studies, however, did not include preschool children. Therefore, the prevalence of caries and dental health status of the preschoolage children are not known. Children under five years of age (preschool children) constitute a considerable proportion of Pakistani population. The purpose of this study was to assess the caries prevalence in children less than five years old and also examine whether urbanisation and income are associated with the dental decay status of these preschool-age children in the district of Lahore, Pakistan.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present survey was conducted in the district of Lahore, Pakistan, in collaboration with National Program for Primary Healthcare and Family Planning (NPPH & FP). A complete record of households in the encatchment area of the NPPH & FP was obtained. Permission from the Director of the NPPH & FP, the Director of Health Services (DHS) and the government of the Punjab was sought to involve the Lady Health Workers (LHWs) in carrying out this survey. Multistage random sampling was done to collect the sample of children from urban and rural areas. In the first stage, a list of areas where NPPH & FP was functional was prepared both for urban and rural sites. Four sites – two rural and two urban – were randomly selected. In the next step, all the households were listed that housed children up to five years of age. Out of this list, 725 households were randomly selected: 475 urban and 230 rural. The number of 3- to 5-year-old children totaled 1422. Stratified random sampling was done, and every second child was selected until a total of 700 children were enrolled in the study. At the second stage, a random selection of 32 LHWs was done for urban centres and 9 for rural centres. The LHWs were trained during a workshop for implementation of the questionnaires, while the author underwent calibration exercises for dental health examination. Data of children regarding their age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES) and area of residence were collected. Based on socioeconomic status, the study population was divided into two groups based on the family income: a low income group (family income < PKR 5000 per month) and a middle income group (family income > PKR 5000 per month). Clinical examination for dental caries was conducted by the first author who was calibrated by a previously calibrated epidemiologist. The intra-examiner reliability was Kappa = 0.86. The children’s caries status was recorded by using the dmft index. The criteria recommended by the WHO for diagnosing dental caries were adopted. A dental health examination of each child was carried out by the principal author using a plain mouth mirror, only to retract the soft tissues. Visual examination was done in an open space in broad daylight while the child sat either in the mother’s lap in a knee-toknee position or independently in an ordinary upright chair. The dental examination took between 2 and 5 minutes, depending upon the child’s level of cooperation. The oral health examination charts were filled in by the researcher herself. The children were given a sample of paediatric toothpaste at the end of the examination.