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|عنوان فارسی مقاله:||ریزپردازنده های بیولوژیک، یا، چگونگی ساخت یک کامپیوتر دارای بخش های بیولوژیک|
|عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:||The biological microprocessor, or how to build a computer with biological parts|
|رشته های مرتبط:||مهندسی کامپیوتر، زیست شناسی، بیوانفورماتیک، ژنتیک، معماری سیستم های کامپیوتری و سخت افزار کامپیوتر|
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|نشریه||الزویر – Elsevier|
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Systemics, a revolutionary paradigm shift in scientific thinking, with applications in systems biology, and synthetic biology, have led to the idea of using silicon computers and their engineering principles as a blueprint for the engineering of a similar machine made from biological parts. Here we describe these building blocks and how they can be assembled to a general purpose computer system, a biological microprocessor. Such a system consists of biological parts building an input / output device, an arithmetic logic unit, a control unit, memory, and wires (busses) to interconnect these components. A biocomputer can be used to monitor and control a biological system.
Nature and computers are words that used to mean unrelated things. However, this view changed, starting in the 1940s, when a revolutionary scientific paradigm, systemics based on platonic idealistic philosophy, gained popularity   . The roots of philosophical idealism based systemics goes back to Plato. A centerpiece of Plato’s (428/7 to 348/7 BC) work is his theory of forms, also called theory of ideas . Forms are archetypes, blueprints, the essences of the various phenomena of the same thing. The superior world consists, due to Plato, of mathematical objects, terms and non-materialistic abstract ideas. Moreover, Plato introduced in his dialogue Philebus a concept called System . A system is according to Plato a model for thinking about how complex structures are developed. Another idealistic philosopher, Kant, introduced, in 1790, in his Critique of Judgment the concept of self-organizing . Idealistic concepts based systemics have become important in contemporary science in order to understand complexity and big data problems. Between the 1950s and 60s three groundbreaking works were published: 1948, Norbert Wiener publishes “Cybernetics or Control and communication in the animal and machine” . In 1955 William Ross Ashby’s “Introduction to cybernetics” came out . 1968, Ludwig Bertalanffy published “General System theory: Foundations, Development, Applications” . Bertalanaffy defined the concept of systems. Cybernetics explains complex systems that exist of a large number of interacting and interrelated parts. Wiener and Ashby pioneered the use of mathematics to study systems. This systems theory was further developed in the following years. Important contributions to the field are by Heinz Foerster, whose work focused on cybernetics, the exploration of regulatory systems, and who founded in 1958 the Biological Computer Lab (BCL) at the Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of Illinois . The work of the BCL was focused on the similarities in cybernetic systems and electronics and especially biology inspired computing . Other important contributions to systemics are by the Nobel-prize winning work of Ilya Prigogine on self-organization and his systems theory concepts in thermodynamics . Furthermore: Mitchell Feigenbaums work on Chaos theory . Contemporary application finds systems theory in bioscience in fields such as systems biology, and its practical application synthetic biology . The term systems biology was created by Bertalanffy in 1928 . Systems biology focuses on complex interactions in biological systems by applying a holistic perspective . Altogether, this kind of thinking has led to the identification of ideas behind data processing in nature, but also in machines, such as silicon computers.