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|عنوان فارسی مقاله:
|بررسی ماتریس پدیدارشناختی تمرین های مرتبط با حضور ذهن از دیدگاه عصبی شناختی
|عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
|Investigating the Phenomenological Matrix of Mindfulness- related Practices from a Neurocognitive Perspective
|رشته های مرتبط:
|روانشناسی، روانشناسی بالینی، روانشناسی شناخت و روانشناسی عمومی
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بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
Mindfulness as an Explanandum
Overview of the Landscape of Research
Research on mindfulness spans a broad swath of approaches and research agendas. Some investigators attempt to uncover fundamental mechanisms of action, while others are concerned with the acquisition of new skills and evaluating their efficacy in clinical and non-clinical populations. This diversity is important for advancing our understanding, but it also creates multiple domains of tension among various subdisciplines that is fertile ground for misunderstanding. Some of these subdisciplines include cognitive neuroscience, developmental psychology, positive psychology, clinical and health psychology, psychiatry, preventive medicine, and education. In the humanities and allied fields, relevant subdisciplines include religious studies, philosophy (especially philosophy of mind), anthropology and sociology. Here we will approach mindfulness practices and training from the perspectives of psychology and cognitive neuroscience tempered by concerns from within the humanities. These are the points of view comprising the emerging field of contemplative science ().
Toward a Family Resemblance Approach
Before presenting a phenomenological and neurocognitive framework for investigating the effects of mindfulness practices, we first offer a critical overview of the various uses of the term mindfulness in academic psychology. Although attempts to generate an operational definition of mindfulness have been published and oft cited (), a consensus definition of mindfulness is lacking, and the myriad definitions in the literature can be seen as generating more confusion than clarity. This confusion not only reflects the relative novelty of contemplative science as an empirical field of research, but it also stems from complex issues related to the appropriation of practices and theoretical accounts from traditional contemplative sources, especially various Buddhist traditions (). The use of Buddhist sources adds complexity and potential confusion, since Buddhist traditions have themselves disagreed on the nature of mindfulness and debated the topic for centuries ().
While the confusion over “mindfulness” arises from the breadth of contexts in which the term is used, this breadth itself stands in tension with a drive toward formulating a single, universally applicable definition. A further source of confusion, perhaps supported by the nascent nature of this field, has been the need to frame mindfulness-based interventions in ways that are maximally compatible with clinical medicine and psychology, such that these practices are seen through the lens of current scientific thinking and are articulated in ways that can be readily communicated to potential patients, healthcare providers, and researchers. Although clearly crucial to basic and clinical research, this restricted perspective increases the risk of misrepresenting (or missing altogether) the active ingredients underlying the potentially transformative effects of these practices whose techniques emerge in a context broader than clinical medicine, psychology or neuroscience.
We respond to the aforementioned issues by providing a heuristic tool that enables different styles and levels of training in mindfulness to be mapped into a multidimensional phenomenological space that can be used to generate hypotheses for empirical research. By phenomenological space, we mean the characterization of categorical features of the field of experience, as it is lived and verbally articulated in the first-person ().
This approach eschews any attempt to produce a single definition of mindfulness, and since it is based on the phenomenology of the practices, it is compatible with multiple explanatory and analytical schemas from divergent subdisciplines, including contemplative theories (), or clinical frameworks (e.g., MBSR), or neuroscientific models (). In light of the confusion noted above, we will first discuss common (if conflicting) uses of the term “mindfulness.” Next, the model and its various dimensions will be presented. The remainder of this paper will then explore some tractable features of this heuristic model through the lens of psychology, and cognitive and affective neuroscience, including a selective review of mechanistic studies of mindfulness practices.