دانلود رایگان مقاله انگلیسی تحلیل بیزین در تحقیقات روان شناسی آموزشی: مثالی از تفاوت های جنسیتی در اهداف دستیابی به همراه ترجمه فارسی
|عنوان فارسی مقاله:||تحلیل بیزین در تحقیقات روان شناسی آموزشی: مثالی از تفاوت های جنسیتی در اهداف دستیابی|
|عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:||Bayesian analysis in educational psychology research: An example of gender differences in achievement goals|
|رشته های مرتبط:||روانشناسی، علوم تربیتی، مدیریت و برنامه ریزی آموزشی، روانشناسی تربیتی و روانشناسی عمومی|
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|نشریه||الزویر – Elsevier|
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Much research in educational psychology concerns group differences. In this study, we argue that Bayesian estimation is more appropriate for testing group differences than is the traditional null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). We demonstrate the use of Bayesian estimation on gender differences in students’ achievement goals. Research findings on gender differences in achievement goals have been mixed. We explain how Bayesian estimation of mean differences is more intuitive, informative, and coherent in comparison with NHST, how it overcomes structural and interpretive problems of NHST, and how it offers a way to achieve cumulative progress toward increasing precision in estimating gender differences in achievement goals. We provide an empirical demonstration by comparing a Bayesian and a traditional NHST analysis of gender differences in achievement goals among 442 7th-grade students (223 girls and 219 boys). Whereas findings from the two analyses indicate comparable results of higher endorsement of mastery goals among girls and higher endorsement of performance-approach and avoidance goals among boys, it is the Bayesian analysis rather than the NHST that is more intuitively interpreted. We conclude by discussing the perceived disadvantages of Bayesian estimation, and some ways in which a consideration of Bayesian probability can aid interpretations of traditional analytical methods.
۱٫۱٫ Uncertainty regarding gender differences
Gender differences in academic motivation have been of interest for researchers aiming to explain differences between girls and boys in academic decision-making and performance. Researchers have sought to understand, for example, why boys and girls elect different courses of study and perform at different levels in language arts and in math and science (Eccles, 1983). Research in the past three decades has fruitfully investigated gender differences in perceived abilities and also in task values (Wigfield & Eccles, 2002). However, research findings have been much less consistent regarding gender differences in the motivational orientations that students adopt for studying in different domains—their achievement goals—leading to uncertainty regarding gender differences in these important motivational processes that have been related to quality engagement, development of interests, and performance (Hulleman, Schrager, Bodmann, & Harackiewicz, 2010; Linnenbrink-Garcia, Tyson, & Patall, 2008). We propose that one reason for the uncertainty may be the reliance of researchers on normative Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST) as the primary method for drawing conclusions about gender differences from the data. In this paper, we illustrate interpretive and structural problems with traditional t tests. In addition, we discuss how these problems may be addressed by employing a Bayesian analysis as an alternative method for understanding gender differences within the framework of achievement goal theory. We illustrate the use of Bayesian analysis to investigate gender differences in achievement goals among a sample of Junior-High school students.
۱٫۲٫ Achievement goal theory
Achievement goal theory is an important perspective for understanding student motivation in school (Ames, 1992; Elliot, 2005; Nicholls, 1989). Researchers distinguish between three primary achievement goals: mastery-approach, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals.1 Mastery-approach goals refer to a focus on development of competence, have been found to be associated with adaptive patterns of learning including self-regulation, persistence, and preference for challenging activities, and are considered desirable motivational goals (Maehr & Zusho, 2009). Performance-approachgoals refer to a focus on demonstrating high competence, particularly relative to others. This motivational orientation has been associated with some positive patterns of learning, such as high efficacy and achievement, which have been associated with the normative comparison goal, but also with somewhat less positive patterns such as disruptive behavior and unwillingness to cooperate, which have been associated with the demonstration of ability goal (Hulleman et al., 2010; Kaplan & Maehr, 2007; Senko, Hulleman, & Harackiewicz, 2011). Performance-avoidance goals refer to a focus on avoiding demonstrating low competence, particularly relative to others, and have been commonly associated with maladaptive patterns of learning, including low efficacy, negative emotions, self-handicapping strategies, and low performance (Kaplan & Maehr, 2007; Maehr & Zusho, 2009).