|عنوان فارسی مقاله:||تولید شبه ماده نمو بر چه در یک جهش یافته گلدار گیاه دو پایه قلیانک latifolia گل های غیرجنسی|
|عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:||Carpel development in a floral mutant of dioecious Silene latifolia producing asexual and female-like flowers|
|رشته های مرتبط:||زیست شناسی|
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|مجله||مجله فیزیولوژی گیاهی (plant physiology)|
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بخشی از ترجمه فارسی:
شکل 1- یک جهش یافته بدون جنسیت و شبه ماده k.34 از silene latifolia میکروگراف های الکترونی نگاره از یک گل بدون جنسیت (a) و یک گل شبه ماده (b). (c) الگوهای طویل سازی برچه پس از سطح 5 در نوع وحشی و گل های k.34 توسط نقشه طول مادگی (mm) در مقایسه با طول گلبرگ (mm. خط سقوط (خط تیره ها) نوع وحشی نر (سریع های باز) و گل های بدون جنسیت (مربع های پر) توسط معادله y=0.47x+0.28 توصیف می شود (r=0.90). خط سقوط (خط توپر) از ماده نوع وحشی (دایره های باز) و گل های شبه ماده k.34 (دایره های پر) توسط معادله (r=0.96) y=1.23x+0.42 توصیف شده است.
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
Summary The genes SlSTM1 and SlSTM2 (orthologs of Arabidopsis SHOOT MERISTEMLESS) and SlCUC (an ortholog of CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON1 and CUC2) of the dioecious species Silene latifolia have been proposed to control the gynoecium suppression pathway in developing flowers. In a mutant of S. latifolia (K034) that produces no males but only asexual and imperfect female (female-like) flowers, both on the same individual, gynoecia are completely suppressed in asexual flowers and partially suppressed in female-like flowers. To determine whether these two epigenetic phenotypes in gynoecium development are caused by changes in SlSTM and SlCUC expression, we performed in situ hybridization with probes of SlSTM and SlCUC. We found two different pattern of gene expression in flower buds prior to the onset of phenotypic differentiation, which were similar to the reciprocal expression of the two genes described in male and female wild-type plants. In young K034 flower buds, 14.3% of developing structures showed female and the rest male determination. This ratio corresponds to the ratio of female-like to asexual flowers eventually produced by the K034 plants. The same ratio (7–16%) was not only found in the original mutants but also in the first and second backcross generations and in vegetative clones of the original mutant line. Hence, the switch-like and reciprocal SlSTM and SlCUC expression patterns in K034 correspond to the gynoecium suppression patterns in the wild type, suggesting that the mutation(s) responsible for the two mutant genotypes acts upstream of SlSTM and SlCUC. & 2009 Published by Elsevier GmbH. ARTICLE IN PRESS www.elsevier.de/jplph 0176-1617/$ – see front matter & 2009 Published by Elsevier GmbH. doi:10.1016/j.jplph.2009.04.004 Abbreviations: CUC, CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON; DIG, Digoxigenin; STM, SHOOT MERISTEMLESS; NAC, NAM, ATAF, & CUC transcription factor. Corresponding author. Tel.: +81 4 7136 3679; fax: +81 4 7136 3674. E-mail address: email@example.com (S. Kawano). Introduction SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) and CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON (CUC) genes in the model angiosperm Arabidopsis thaliana are central to shoot and flower meristem function. In A. thaliana, the STM gene, which encodes a putative transcription factor of KNOTTED1 class homeodomain proteins, is required for the maintenance of undifferentiated cells in the shoot meristem and for correct proliferation of cells in the flower meristem (Barton and Poethig, 1993; Clark et al., 1996; Endrizzi et al., 1996; Long et al., 1996). The STM gene is expressed in shoot apical, inflorescence, and flower meristems; it is also expressed in vascular tissues and in boundaries between flower whorls (Long et al., 1996). STM transcripts are downregulated in incipient flower primordia (Long et al., 1996). CUC genes (CUC1, CUC2 and CUC3) encode members of the NAC family (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) of transcription factors (Aida et al., 1997; Takada et al., 2001; Vroemen et al., 2003); they are involved in the establishment and maintenance of organ boundaries in shoot apical, inflorescence, and flower meristems. CUC gene expression occurs in one or two rows of cells that correspond to the boundaries of each organ primordium (Aida et al., 1997; Takada et al., 2001; Vroemen et al., 2003). Breuil-Broyer et al. (2004) showed that CUC2 is associated with a lack of cell proliferation, particularly in whorl boundaries. Regulatory feedback loops exist between STM and CUC genes in apical meristems of the Arabidopsis embryo (Aida et al., 1997, 1999; Takada et al., 2001). Zluvova et al. (2006) identified SlSTM1 and SlSTM2 (orthologs of STM) and SlCUC (an ortholog of CUC1 and CUC2) in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia. They performed in situ hybridization with SlCUC and SlSTM (SlSTM1 and SlSTM2) on young male flowers and female flowers and found differences between male and female flowers in the expression pattern of their genes. In female flowers at stage 3, SlSTM transcripts were expressed in the central portion of the meristem (the gynoecium region), but SlCUC transcripts were not. In male flowers at the same stage, SlSTM transcripts were absent in the gynoecium region, while SlCUC transcripts were present. Hence, it is likely that SlSTM and SlCUC control the S. latifolia gynoecium suppression pathway at an early stage in both males and females. In S. latifolia, male plants have a pair of dimorphic sex chromosomes (X and Y), whereas females have a pair of identical sex chromosomes (XX). In male flowers, the presence of the Y chromosome leads to suppression of gynoecium development and to formation of a thin rod-like structure (rather than the five fused carpels found in female flowers; Grant et al., 1994; Farbos et al., 1997; Scutt et al., 1997). The suppression pathway of carpel development may be subject to epigenetic regulation; this was indicated by analyses of an androhermaphroditic mutant induced by 5-azacytidine (demethylating reagent) treatment (Janousek et al., 1996), and by analyses of hermaphrodite mutants obtained by deletions in the Y chromosome (Lardon et al., 1999). The Y chromosomal deletion mutant K034 of S. latifolia has a dimorphic flower phenotype expressed as asexual (Figure 1a) and imperfect female (female-like) flowers (Figure 1b). Gynoecia of female-like flowers have only one to three carpels, and each carpel is normal and fertile. The K034 Y chromosome has two deletions in the gynoecium-suppressing and stamen-promoting regions. Complete stamen suppression in K034 is caused by deletion of the stamen-promoting region. Consequently, all K034 flowers lack mature stamens. Partial deletion in the K034 gynoeciumsuppressing region may produce completely suppressed gynoecia in asexual flowers, and partially suppressed gynoecia in female-like flowers. The purpose of our study was to determine whether these two epigenetic suppressions of gynoecium development are caused by changes in the expression patterns of SlSTM and SlCUC in K034 flowers. If the switch-like and reciprocal SlSTM and SlCUC expression patterns in K034 correspond to the gynoecium suppression patterns in the wild type, the mutation(s) responsible for the two mutant genotypes of K034 acts upstream of SlSTM and SlCUC.