دانلود ترجمه مقاله فلسفه آموزش و پرورش و اثرات رو به رشد تحقیقات تجربی

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عنوان فارسی مقاله: فلسفه آموزش و پرورش و اثرات رو به رشد تحقیقات تجربی
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله: Philosophy of Education and the Growing Impact of Empirical Research
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مشخصات مقاله انگلیسی (PDF)  و ترجمه مقاله (Word)
سال انتشار مقاله  ۲۰۱۳
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی  ۱۷ صفحه با فرمت pdf
تعداد صفحات ترجمه مقاله ۲۲ صفحه با فرمت ورد
رشته های مرتبط  علوم تربیتی

 

 


بخشی از ترجمه:

 

نقطه ی شروع: موفقیت پیروز مندانه ی تجربه گرایی
از اواخر قرن نوزدهم، متد های پژوهش تجربی در آموزش مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است. متدهای آزمایشی در ابتدا از آزمایشگاه های روانشناسی آن زمان نشأت گرفتند و به سرعت با متد های آماری کاربردی که در علوم آموزشی آمریکایی ها رایج بودند، ادغام شدند. چنین رویه هایی این امکان را فراهم کرده تا به مطالعه ی مجموعه تست های دانشجویانی که قبلاٌ بیرون از حیطه ی آموزشی بوده اند پرداخته شود. مشاهداتی نیز در این حوزه توسعه یافته و این امکان را فراهم کردند تا به مطالعه ی پدیده هایی در بازی کودکان یا رفتار بزرگسالان پرداخته شود. بنیانگذار این پژوهش های جاری، آقای استن لی هال بود.
این پژوهش بین المللی، به تصدیق مزایایی پرداخته است و اینکه از نظر سیاسی و یا توسط انجمن های معلمی پشتیبانی شده است. در اصل، تقاضاهای عموم یا گروه های مربوطه از سهام دارن، بر روی رفتار علم آموزشی تأثیر گذاشته است. این به نوبه ی خود مزیت دیگری را مطرح میسازد: انتزاع های فلسفی که بر خلاف روش ها یا برنامه های فلسفی دسته بندی شده است، باید مورد اجتناب قرار گیرد. از نظر تئوریک، هیچ گرایی در پژوهش تجربی وجود ندارد که نیازی به صرف وقت بلند مدت نداشته باشد، بلکه نیاز به موضوعات و متد هایی انحصاری دارد. این موضوعات، بیشتر جنبه ی عمل گرایی داشته و متد ها نیز به همانطور که باید باشند، شفاف هستند و نیاز به آموزش ثابت و دستورالعمل هایی دارند.
یافته های پژوهش های تجربی اولیه نیز دارای مزایایی فوری بوده است. منحنی یادگیری رایجی که از پژوهش حافظه نشأت گرفته است، در کلاس های درسی مورد پذیرش قرار گرفته است، همانطور که تست های هوشی و اندازه گیری های موفقیت و متد های مدیریت معاصر نیز به منظور تضمین یک سازمان مدرسه ای کارآمد طراحی شده اند. یکی از پیروان و پشتیبانان انقلاب بهره وری در ایالات متحده، آقای جان دوی بود که بیشتر وی را به خاطر یافته های تجربی یا نظریه های فیزیولوزیکی میشناسند.


بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:

 

۱٫ Point of Departure: The Triumphant Success of Empiricism Empirical research methods have been used in education since the end of the 19th century. Initially experimental methods taken from psychological laboratories of the time were used and quickly also complemented with applied statistics methods which were popularized in American educational science first and foremost by Edward Thorndike. These procedures made it possible to study large test series of students who before had been outside the horizon of education. Field observations were also developed, making it possible to study concrete phenomena in children’s play or in adolescents’ behavior. The pioneer of this current of research was the psychologist G. Stanley Hall. This international research had undisputed advantages and was also supported politically or by teacher unions. Indeed, demands of the public or relevant groups of stakeholders influenced the behavior of educational science. This in turn brought with it another advantage: Philosophical abstractions had to be avoided as did classification into opposing philosophical camps or approaches. Theoretically speaking, there are no “isms” in empirical research which did not require long-term devotees, but rather merely topics and methods. The topics are practice-oriented and the methods are just as transparent as they are demanding, requiring instruction and constant training. Findings of early empirical research also seemed to actually have an immediate benefit. The famous learning curve from memory research gained admission to the classroom as did the intelligence test and achievement measurements and also contemporary management methods designed to ensure an efficient school organization. One of the adherents and supporters of the “efficiency” movement in the United States was, as is generally known, John Dewey,1 who often referred to empirical findings or psychological theories. In general terms, the findings of empirical research before and after World War I strongly influenced progressive education (Oelkers 1998). Today’s competition between philosophy of education and empirical research only came about gradually, also because academic power was becoming an increasingly critical factor; at the beginning of the 20th century this power was so weak that people in the field of education both had to and were able to work together. Indeed, child-centered education would hardly have become dominant in the United States if it hadn’t drawn on psychological research. However, despite the undisputed advantages, empirical research did not initially dominate the discipline. Indeed, in the United States, philosophy of education maintained a strong position at the universities, and did so at least until the death of John Dewey (1952),  Lecture at the University of Ankara, November 21st 2013, 1 School and Society, Chapter 3: Waste in Education. 2 i.e. in the entire first half of the 20th century. This influence could also be seen in the fact that continental philosophers of education such as Jacques Maritain, Robert Ulich or Werner Jaeger taught at American universities. In Germany, until 1960 almost all academic pedagogy was somehow or another philosophically oriented. The situation looks completely different today. Throughout the field of education, there is a large and still increasing demand for empirical research and in fact, it seems as though there is nothing in education which could not be empirically researched. Philosophy of education on the other hand lost considerable ground, professorships were marginalized or even completely done away with since empirical research in education was more promising and seemed to meet government and society’s expectations in terms of utility, which can never be satisfied with philosophical means. Over the last thirty years, large-scale research has developed which in terms of the amount of research can easily be compared to natural science disciplines. The fact that research methods have, to a large extent, become aligned also speaks to this. Qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection are largely used the same way in all the social sciences. The research philosophy is also identical. The findings are understood as representing “reality” at least in sections. Added to this are strong research successes and methodological progress, as one can see from the various Pisa studies. “Empirische Bildungsforschung”, as it is called in Germany, uses specific concepts, for instance in achievement measurement terms like “competence,” or “educational standards.” These concepts have a significant impact on pedagogical reflection and today’s language of education. The new concepts do not replace the old ones, but rather redefine the field. There is a specific philosophy in the background of every research program and empiricists in particular attach great importance to concepts that are as precise as possible and are not satisfied with vagueness. However, this philosophy has nothing to do with that which is commonly referred to as “philosophy of education.” At the same time, we should note the classic utopias of education have come apart or certainly are receiving less and less notice. A mere thirty years ago, many educators thought they could radically change society or at least the educational institutions with a “new education.” A connection to empirical research seemed superfluous and would likely not have supported the expectations of, for example, a “pedagogy of freedom” as Paulo Freire saw it. Revolutionary action was called for here, not research which can only describe and not also change at the same time. Such references are few and far between in the current discussion, which also means that the mainstream has lost the immediate link to radical philosophies of education. This has to do with the fact that practice has not followed theory. If you study Freire’s practical attempts at political liberation with adult literacy at their locations in Brazil, you will not find any successes, but at most paradoxical effects (Stauffer 2007), that do not make it possible to imagine a “concrete utopia.” Even the libertarian “free schools” of the seventies were never the way they were supposed to be according to their own philosophy. Established and often read references of leftist social criticism such as Paul Goodman’s (1960) book Growing Up Absurd are rarely consulted any more these days. The central question is no longer how one can change the world with education, but rather how education works, i.e. what is or is not achieved with it. This question can only be answered empirically and has considerably contributed to radical 3 philosophy of education’s loss of credibility. Its implicit assumptions of effectiveness did not work This is connected to a basic problem which goes back to the age of Enlightenment and its pedagogical ideas. The combination between progress, social change and “new education” developed in the 18th century is, today, strongly called into question and with good reason. Skepticism with regard to the long and decisive tradition of enlightenment philosophy and education is now widespread, a fact to which historical research also contributed. The “Enlightenment” of the 18th century is more than just a grand narrative but it does not guarantee the educational claim to educate people to be their best or aim to change society with education. The leftist historiography of the 19th century was the first to associate “education” with a doctrine of salvation and to firmly establish these claims. Education should serve progressive social objectives, but this requires the opposite of conservative positions which has, for the most part, disappeared in Germany. Instead, the field of “education” has become a subject of empirical research that with its own concepts remeasures the practice fields and calls the expectations of earlier theories into doubt, and this rightly. However one conceives it, “education” does not achieve any far off goals and cannot make any products, but it is precisely the goal-orientation that determined the importance of the concept of education in history. Nonetheless, “edutopias” can always be reinvented (Peters/Freeman-Moir 2006). The only question here is, who can believe in them given the past experiences – experiences that basically should not influence utopias. Moreover, utopias must have a connection to action: if someone wants to follow them, he must see that there is a chance that they can be realized and how to do so. And, ultimately, if pedagogical optimism is to be preserved, dystopias also have to be excluded, the latter often seeming more credible than the promises that necessarily come along with utopias (Oelkers 2014). What is clearly recognizable is also the revamping of the core pedagogical concepts such as “teaching” or “education.” This has consequences associated with it, since the identity of education in its traditional form is dependent on these, as Herbart called them, “intrinsic conceptions” ۲ . If teaching is viewed as a constructivist teaching-learning setting and education as a social interaction, this makes it hard to separate it from psychology or sociology, for instance; it is almost impossible then to convey what the autonomy of educational science, with the exception of the link to practice fields, is supposed to comprise. The classical term “education” was supposed to refer to designable processes according to which one could imagine that certain people could successfully influence other people, e.g. adults influence children according to their goals. But this idea becomes questionable, if, following George Herbert Mead, the process of education is conceived not as an influence, but rather as a social interaction. In this case, assumptions that associate the education process with an overall goal like that of emancipation do not apply since that would require a progression over time without unintended consequences which does not exist. Emancipation as a goal of education also requires that all the “unemancipated” have not yet or will not achieve the goal (Rieger-Ladich 2002).  “Intrinsic conceptions” (Herbart 1896, pg. 83). 4 These findings do not only apply to German educational science, even if to a certain extent it represents a separate path comparing to the anglo-saxon world of education. Since the 1960’s, educational science in Germany is considered to be an academic discipline on its own, whereas in other countries pedagogical topics are handled by various disciplines. In Germany, there is an umbrella society which unites several sub-disciplines under one roof. Themes and tasks of the philosophy of education are usually assigned to professorships of “allgemeine Erziehungswissenschaft” (general pedagogical science).


 

دانلود رایگان مقاله انگلیسی + خرید ترجمه فارسی
عنوان فارسی مقاله: فلسفه آموزش و پرورش و اثرات رو به رشد تحقیقات تجربی
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله: Philosophy of Education and the Growing Impact of Empirical Research

 

 

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