دانلود رایگان مقاله انگلیسی جابه جایی جانبی دراز مدت دیوارهای حائل قطعه قطعه خاک مسلح شده با ژئوسنتتیک به همراه ترجمه فارسی
|عنوان فارسی مقاله:||جابه جایی جانبی دراز مدت دیوارهای حائل قطعه قطعه خاک مسلح شده با ژئوسنتتیک|
|عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:||Long-term lateral displacement of geosynthetic-reinforced soil segmental retaining walls|
|رشته های مرتبط:||مهندسی عمران، سازه، خاک و پی|
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|نشریه||الزویر – Elsevier|
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The service limit-state design of Geosynthetic-Reinforced Soil (GRS) retaining walls requires accurate estimation of the lateral facing displacement at the end of construction as well as after years of creep. However, before a simplistic but rational methodology for this purpose can be developed, mechanisms governing the short-term and long-term lateral facing displacements must be clarified. In this study, extensive Finite Element analyses were carried out using a calibrated Finite Element procedure to investigate and attempt to better understand the lateral facing displacements of segmental GRS walls at the end of construction and after 10 years of creep under constant gravity loading. The study found that among the two main components of lateral facing displacement, the deformation of reinforced soil zone was largely governed by reinforcement spacing and reinforcement stiffness, while the influence of reinforcement length was negligible. Soil stiffness also played an important role in the lateral deformation if large reinforcement stiffness and/or small reinforcement spacing were used. In contrast, reinforcement length to a very large extent determined the lateral displacement at the back of reinforced soil zone. With constant reinforcement length, the reinforced soil zone could be treated as a deep beam. The displacement at the back of reinforced soil zone was then determined by the earth pressure, beam depth, and beam stiffness, the last of which is a function of soil stiffness, reinforcement spacing, reinforcement stiffness, and facing stiffness. The study found that isochrone stiffness can be used to interpret the lateral deformation of GRS walls under working stress condition.
Geosynthetic-Reinforced Soil (GRS) retaining walls are used extensively as permanent structures in many countries. Safety has always been the first concern in designing earth retaining structures. But the serviceability of permanent earth retaining structures is of equal importance. For permanent GRS retaining walls designed with an expected life of 75e100 years, the “service limit state” is as important as the “strength limit state” and must be checked during the design stage (AASHTO, 2007). For this purpose, AASHTO (2007) and FHWA (Elias et al., 2001) both suggest the empirical method proposed by Christopher (1993), which estimates the maximum lateral displacement of simple GRS walls at the end of construction (EOC). Long-term deformation is not taken into account in this method. Nonetheless, long-term deformation due to creep cannot be neglected for GRS walls (e.g. Fannin, 2001; Benjamim et al., 2007; Yang et al., 2009). Even using clean granular backfill with small creep, the horizontal displacement of GRS walls can continue to develop due to the time-dependent properties of some geosynthetic reinforcements, such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP) geogrids (e.g., Allen and Bathurst, 2002; Liu and Ling, 2007; Liu and Won, 2009), although it may be small if polyester (PET) or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) type of geosynthetics is used (e.g., Kaliakin et al., 2000; Kongkitkul et al., 2010). Besides, the empirical method does not take into account the effects of soil strength or soil stiffness, assuming that wellcompacted and high-strength granular soils are used as backfill materials. However, extensive studies have shown that backfill strength and stiffness play critical roles in the lateral displacement of GRS walls (e.g., Rowe and Ho, 1998; Helwany et al., 1999; Ling and Leshchinsky, 2003; Ling et al., 2005). Simplistic analytical methods also exist for the analyses of reinforced soil structures under working stress condition, some having the capacity to estimate lateral facing displacement (e.g. Ehrlich and Mitchell, 1994; Allen et al., 2003; Klar and Sas, 2009; Correia et al., 2011). But how to address the issue of creep deformation is still not resolved in the existing methods. Alternatively, numerical methods can accurately estimate lateral deformation of reinforced soil walls, provided that proper models are used to simulate backfill soil, geosynthetics, and soilestructure interaction (e.g., Christopher, 1993; Karpurapu and Bathurst, 1995; Rowe and Ho, 1998; Helwany et al., 1999, 2007; Rowe and Skinner, 2001; Ling and Leshchinsky, 2003; Ling et al., 2004; Hatami and Bathurst, 2006; Guler et al., 2007; Yoo and Kim, 2008; Ling and Liu, 2009). With proper modeling of the time-dependent properties of soils and/or geosynthetics (e.g., Hirakawa et al., 2003; Kongkitkul et al., 2004, 2007; Liu and Ling, 2005, 2007; Yeo and Hsuan, 2010), the long-term deformation of reinforced soil structures can also be captured by numerical methods (e.g., Helwany and Wu, 1997; Li and Rowe, 2001, 2008; Skinner and Rowe, 2003, 2005; Rowe and Taechakumthorn, 2008; Bergado and Teerawattanasuk, 2008; Liu and Won, 2009; Liu et al., 2009; Li et al., 2011). In this study, a Finite Element procedure that was calibrated for long-term behavior of reinforced soil structures as per Liu and Won (2009) was employed to investigate the end of construction (EOC) and long-term deformations of geosynthetic-reinforced segmental retaining walls under working stress condition. The study attempts to understand the deformation mechanisms so that a simplistic methodology can be developed in the future to estimate lateral facing displacement for the purpose of service limit-state design. Only granular backfill soil was considered in this study, which was assumed to be time-independent, and no surcharge was applied on the backfill surface of retaining walls. The walls were analyzed for 10 years of creep under constant gravity loading following the end_of_construction (EOC).