دانلود رایگان مقاله انگلیسی مدرسه ساد بری والی مدرسه ای برای یک جامعه فرا صنعتی به همراه ترجمه فارسی
|عنوان فارسی مقاله:||مدرسه ساد بری والی مدرسه ای برای یک جامعه فرا صنعتی|
|عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:||The Sudbury Valley School School For a Post-Industrial Society|
|رشته های مرتبط:||علوم اجتماعی، پژوهشگری اجتماعی، جامعه شناسی، روانشناسی، روانشناسی صنعتی و سازمانی، علوم تربیتی، مدیریت و برنامه ریزی آموزشی|
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بخشی از ترجمه فارسی:
سیصد سال قبل وقتی کسی می گفت امکان دارد کشوری ایجاد شود که در آن هر کدام از مردم از همه پیشه ها از هر نوعی از هر ملیتی و از هر زمینه ای می توانند زندگی ای توأم با آزادی ، صلح و صفا و توازن داشته باشند و زندگی می تواند شاد باشد ، رویاهی فردی می توانند به واقعیت بپیوندند ، مردم با هم رابطه متقابل داشته باشند و در برابری کامل به سر برند و در همه تصمیمات و آراء دادگاهی رضایت متقابل و دو طرفه بر قرار باشد ، مردم چنین شخصی را دیوانه می پنداشتند و همه تجربه های تاریخ انسان را از سپیده دم تاریخ می آوردند تا گواهی عدم امکان پذیری این رویا باشد . آنها خواهند گفت « مردم به این سبک زندگی نمی کنند این کاری است نشد ! ، این اتفاق نمی افتد » .
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
Three hundred years ago, if somebody had ventured the opinion it is possible to create a country in which people from all walks of life, all persuasions, nationalities, and backgrounds could live together in freedom, peace, and harmony, could live happy lives, could realize their personal dreams – a country in which people showed each other mutual respect, in which people treated each other with complete equality, and in which all decisions were made by the mutual consent of the governed, people would have considered that person a crazy utopian and would have brought all the experience of human history from the dawn of time as witness to the impossibility of such a dream. They would have said, “People just don’t live that way. It doesn’t work. It can’t happen.” Happily for us sitting here today, two centuries ago our founding fathers did not treat that dream as utopian and instead found a way to make it possible to put it into practice. They did something unique in the history of the human race. They had before them the task of creating a new country, a new form of government. And they set about this task not by revising existing forms of government, not by starting from the models that they had around them and tinkering with them and adding a little here and a little there, but by sitting together and spending a tremendous amount of time and thought on “zero-base planning”, on creating a government from scratch, starting from no assumptions other than those that they were willing to make explicitly at the moment. We have records of their deliberations, and many writings that reveal what they thought and how they came to their conclusions. They proceeded by examining the condition of the human race, the na-ture of the human animal, and the social and cultural conditions of the world into which the country they were founding was going to be born. 2 The founders of Sudbury Valley School, beginning in 1965, did much the same thing when it came to education. We too were dissatisfied – dissatisfied with the models of schools that we had available to us at the time, and we had a deep conviction that there was more at stake than just the proper curriculum or the right pedagogical methodology or the right mix of social and emotional and psycholog-ical factors that had to be applied to the educational scene. We were convinced that the time had come for complete reexamination of what it is that a school had to be about if it were to serve as an appropriate agent of society in this country in the late 2Oth century and beyond the year 2000. So we spent several years working on this, trying to gain an understanding of what school is for and how the goals of schools can best be realized. Now, it’s pretty much generally agreed that there are two major roles that a school fills. One is to provide an environment in which children can grow to maturity, from a state of formativeness and de-pendence to a state of independence as adults who have found their unique way of personal expression in life. The second goal is social rather than individ-ual. The school has to be the environment in which the culture prepares itself for its continuation from generation to generation. This is a goal that a community requires of its educational system if it wants its way of life to survive. There is no guarantee that the social goal and the individual goal will mesh. In an authoritarian society, for example, where the lives of every single individual are controlled by some central authority, the social goal promulgating the authoritarian system is in clear conflict with any primacy given to the individual goals of the people in that society. One of the functions of a school in an authoritarian society must therefore be to subject the individual to severe restraints in order to force that individual to meet the needs of society as a whole. The educational systems of highly authoritarian regimes play down individual variation and individual freedom and effec-tively try to eliminate them. On the other hand, in anarchistic educational systems, the individual is focused on, almost entirely to the exclusion of society. The individual is elevated above all else and modes of social interaction and cultural survival are given very little attention.