دانلود رایگان مقاله انگلیسی تحلیل رفاه با تغییر قیمت مواد غذایی: تحلیل ناپارامتری ممنوعیت صادرات بر برنج هند به همراه ترجمه فارسی
|عنوان فارسی مقاله||تحلیل رفاه با تغییر قیمت مواد غذایی: تحلیل ناپارامتری ممنوعیت صادرات بر برنج هند|
|عنوان انگلیسی مقاله||Welfare Analysis of Changing Food Prices: A Nonparametric Examination of Export Ban on Rice in India|
|رشته های مرتبط||علوم اقتصادی و کشاورزی، علوم اجتماعی، تعاون و رفاه اجتماعی، سیاست و توسعه کشاورزی، اقتصاد مالی و اقتصاد تولید و مدیریت واحدهای کشاورزی|
|کلمات کلیدی||شوک قیمت مواد غذایی، هند، برنج، برآورد ناپارامتری، فقر، تجزیه و تحلیل رفاه|
|فرمت مقالات رایگان||
مقالات انگلیسی و ترجمه های فارسی رایگان با فرمت PDF آماده دانلود رایگان میباشند
همچنین ترجمه مقاله با فرمت ورد نیز قابل خریداری و دانلود میباشد
|کیفیت ترجمه||کیفیت ترجمه این مقاله متوسط میباشد|
مقاله انگلیسی رایگان (PDF)
|دانلود رایگان مقاله انگلیسی|
ترجمه فارسی رایگان (PDF)
|دانلود رایگان ترجمه مقاله|
خرید ترجمه با فرمت ورد
|خرید ترجمه مقاله با فرمت ورد|
|جستجوی ترجمه مقالات||جستجوی ترجمه مقالات|
بخشی از ترجمه فارسی مقاله:
۲٫ مروری بر بخش کشاورزی هند
برای اقتصاد کشاورزی مانند هند که در آن سه پنجم نیروی کار برای امرار معاش خود به بخش کشاورزی وابسته هستند، بخش کشاورزی نه تنها برای رشد اقتصادی مهم میباشد بلکه برای حفظ ثبات سیاسی و اجتماعی کشور هم اهمیت دارد. بنابراین، در طول تاریخ، دولت های مختلف هند با رفتارهای حمایتی در قالب یارانه و تسهیلات مالیاتی، با این بخش رفتار کرده اند.
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
Since the world food crisis of 2007-08, increasing food prices have agitated civilians across the world, leading to dethroning of political powers in some countries. In India, the government has always cushioned the agriculture sector due to the sector’s contribution to the GDP, and also because of its political importance to every Indian government that has been in power. Agricultural pricing policies not only impact different aspects of the economy differently, but also vary in scale amongst different sections of the poor. Datt and Ravallion’s1 study on India for the period 1958–۹۴ reports that in the long-run the price effect of food crop productivity (followed by the wage effect) is better at reducing poverty relative to the direct impact of increase in farm incomes, which dominates this relationship in the short-run. The duality of change in price of food grains leads to conflicting policy objectives. A decline in price can adversely affect farmers, but at the same time increase the ability of the poor to consume more, leading to an improved standard of living. Neo-populist economists such as Lipton2 and Griffin suggest that lower prices of staples benefit the rural poor, as they are net consumers of food. While a rise in price tends to create an “urban bias”, where rich households are better able to provide for them. In such a scenario, the neopopulists call for greater government intervention in support of the farmers. However, neoclassical economists assert that higher pricing policies intended to boost production are important as the rural poor “still rely on selling their produce for a significant part of their income So, changes in market prices matter”۳ to reduce rural poverty. Both the schools of thought tend to ignore the diversity amongst the poor. Thus, policy makers need a better understanding of the section of poor they are targeting than simply relying on the trickledown effects of pricing policy. In India, the agriculture sector employs more than 58% of the total workforce and contributed 15% towards the GDP in 2009-104 . Due to the extent of dependency of the Indian economy and population on the agriculture sector it is important to determine which groups are most vulnerable, and how they are affected by agriculture price policies. The purpose of this paper is to measure the impact of changing food prices, through a nonparametric examination of the Indian government’s move to ban the export of rice in the light of the world food crisis of 2007-08. The paper follows Angus Deaton’s5 non-parametric techniques for regression and density estimation on Indian Consumer Household Expenditure surveys for the years 2007-08 and 2009-10. Section 2 gives an overview of agriculture sector in India and volatility of rice prices between 2007 and 2010. Section 3 describes the empirical framework for the analysis. This section also explains the source of the dataset and the censored data problem faced. The results are analysed in section 4. Section 5 is the conclusion. The paper concludes that the export ban had a net positive impact on the Indian population, 87% of whom are net consumers of rice. We also find that the poor in India are heterogeneous in nature. Thus agriculture-pricing policies do not have a homogenous impact on the poor. Majority of rice producers are poor farmers who benefited from the rise in price of rice, while the wage labourers were worse off.
۲٫ Overview of the Indian Agriculture Sector
For an agrarian economy such as India, where three-fifths of the labour force depends on the agriculture sector for livelihood, the agriculture sector is not only important for economic growth, but also to maintain political and social stability in the country. Thus, historically the various Indian governments have treated this sector with a lot of love in the form of subsidies and tax relaxations6 . In 2007-08 the price of rice almost doubled across the globe. Foreseeing a global rise in rice prices, the Indian government reacted by exercising an import ban on non-basmati rice in February 2008 and increased export tariffs on basmati rice in April 20087 . Where globally prices more than doubled, in India they only increased by 40% from 2007-2010. Compared to the rest of the world the impact of the world food crisis of 2007-08 on the Indian economy was low, due to the self-sufficiency and cushioning policies of the Indian government since independence. India’s protectionist agricultural policies have been criticised by advocates of free trade. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), India’s decision to ban the export of rice even with surplus quantities of it was a political move rather than a result of real shortage of grain8 . Traditional trade models suggest that free trade maximises economic welfare. However, when the aim is to maximise national welfare, free trade may not be the obvious policy choice for a developing nation. The objective of the export ban was to increase supply of rice within the country and hence contain the increasing price of rice to insulate the consumers against the negative impact of rising food prices. At the same time the Indian rice producers would receive lower prices relative to the rest of the world, creating a possible negative welfare impact for farmers. The ban was uplifted in February 20129 .