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|عنوان فارسی مقاله:||بهینه سازی تولید بیودیزل از روغن تصفیه شده پنبه دانه و بررسی خصوصیات آن|
|عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:||Optimization of biodiesel production from refined cotton seed oil and its characterization|
|رشته های مرتبط:||شیمی و مهندسی انرژی، شیمی آلی، شیمی تجزیه، شیمی کاتالیست، انرژی های تجدیدپذیر و انرژی و محیط زیست|
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|نشریه||الزویر – Elsevier|
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بخشی از ترجمه فارسی مقاله:
۲٫ مواد و روش ها
۲٫۲ مواد و روش ها
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
In the past the world energy demand has relied on nonrenewable fossil fuels for energy generation, transportation and industrial applications. The gaseous emissions from the combustion of these fuels are the principal causes of global warming and many environmental consequences. The depletion of world crude oil reserves and increased deteriorating climate conditions associated to the use of fossil fuels have stimulated the search for an alternative and efficient fuel by many researchers in recent years. One of the most promising alternative fuels is biodiesel, which has attracted attention worldwide . This is due to its overwhelming benefits over the conventional petro diesel. It is renewable, biodegradable, and non-toxic, with high flash point and good reduction in greenhouse emissions profile [2,3]. Biodiesel is the free fatty acid methyl esters known as FAME, derived from fat and oil sources. There are various processes that have been adopted in the production of biodiesel from vegetable oils and animal fats among which transesterification is the key and foremost important process to produce the cleaner and environmentally safe fuel [4,5]. The transesterification is usually carried out using primary and secondary alcohols. Fukuda et al.  reported that methanol and ethanol are most frequently used in the production of biodiesel but methanol is more preferred due to its low cost. Biodiesel has been produced through transesterification of edible oils . Presently, more than 95% of commercial biodiesel is produced from edible oil, such as cotton seed, rapeseed, palm, sunflower and soybean oil . There are several parameters that affect the yield of biodiesel through transesterification of vegetable oils. They are alcohol/oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time and agitation speed. The optimization of transesterification reaction requires a large number of experiments and mathematical tool that can predict the effect of each process parameter of the reaction and their interactions. Response surface methodology has been successfully applied to the optimization of biodiesel production from different raw materials and different types of catalysts. In this study, response surface methodology in combination with central composite design was applied to optimize the transesterification of refined cottonseed oil with methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide to produce biodiesel.
۲٫ Materials and methods
Refined cotton seed oil was obtained from Shoprite Enugu, reagents from Head Bridge Onitsha and petro diesel was obtained from Total filling station Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.
A precise quantity of the oil was measured and poured into a conical flask. The oil was pre-heated to 50 C (using water bath with temperature regulator). A specific amount of potassium hydroxide pellets was weighed and dissolved in the required amount of methanol. The potassium methoxide solution was then added to the pre-heated oil in a 250 ml three-neck glass flask and placed on a hot plate magnetic stirrer at a particular temperature with a constant speed of 300 rpm. The reaction was allowed to stand for a defined time and then stopped. The product of the reaction was kept overnight for proper settling of the biodiesel produced. The product was separated from glycerol using separating funnel. Then, 50 ml of water was measured and poured gently on the product sample to purify it. The mixture was gently stirred to avoid foam formation and was left overnight to settle into two phases namely; water-impurity phase and biodiesel phase. The two phase mixture was separated using separating funnel. The biodiesel layer was then heated to 100 C for 1 h to evaporate the remaining water molecules in it. The percentage of the biodiesel yield was determined by comparing the weight of layer biodiesel with the weight of refined cottonseed oil used.