دانلود رایگان مقاله انگلیسی پدیوسین ها: باکتروسین پدیوکوکسی، منابع، تولید، خواص و کاربردها به همراه ترجمه فارسی
|عنوان فارسی مقاله:||پدیوسین ها: باکتروسین پدیوکوکسی، منابع، تولید، خواص و کاربردها|
|عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:||Pediocins: The bacteriocins of Pediococci, Sources, production, properties and applications|
|رشته های مرتبط:||پزشکی، زیست شناسی، میکروبیولوژی، علوم سلولی و مولکولی، باکتری شناسی پزشکی|
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Class IIa bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria are small, cationic proteins with antilisterial activity. Within this class, the pediocins are those bacteriocins that share a highly conserved hydrophilic and charged N-terminal part harboring the consensus sequence -YGNGV- and a more variable hydrophobic and/or amphiphilic C-terminal part. Several pediocins have been isolated and characterized. Despite the structural similarities, their molecular weight varies, as well as their spectrum of antimicrobial activity. They exhibit important technological properties, e.g. thermostability and retaining of activity at a wide pH range, which along with the bactericidal action against Gram-positive food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, make them an important class of biopreservatives. Much new information regarding the pediocins has emerged during the last years. In this review, we summarize and discuss all the available information regarding the sources of pediocins, the characteristics of their biosynthesis and production in fermentation systems, the characteristics of the known pediocin molecules, and their antibacterial action. The advances made by genetic engineering in improving the features of pediocins are also discussed, as well as their perspectives for future applications.
Peptides with antimicrobial properties (AMPs) are produced by eukaryotes and prokaryotes and serve as important components of their defense against microorganisms. Many bacteria are able to synthesize antimicrobial peptides. Those synthesized in the ribosomes, are generally referred to as bacteriocins (antibiotics are not included in the group since they are not ribosomally synthesized). The bacteriocins produced by Gram-negative bacteria are most often large proteins (many are larger that 20 kDa) and their inhibition spectrum is rather narrow, spanning to closely related species. Colicin V and the microcins, are exceptions as they are smaller than 10 kDa. Gram-positive bacteria most often produce peptide bacteriocins smaller than 6 kDa. They are often cationic, amphiphilic, membrane-permealizing peptides, which in this manner resemble many of the AMPs produced by eukaryotes. They appear, however, to be effective in very low concentrations (often picomolar to nanomolar concentrations), although the action spectra are often narrow at these concentrations . The bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are divided into three main groups: the lantibiotics, which are modified bacteriocins (class I), the nonlantibiotics, which are heat-stable and unmodified (class II), and a group of large heat-labile bacteriocins (class III). Another group, known as class IV, is often included in classifications. Bacteriocins of class IV are complex molecules with lipid and carbohydrate moieties. Most of the known ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria have been identified and studied during the last 20 years. Those produced by LAB, and in particular the lantibiotics, are the most extensively studied. Characteristics, among which antilisterial activity, increased specificity and effectiveness in very low concentrations, have long attracted the interest of the food sector for applications in food preservation. Nisin, the lantibiotic produced by Lactococcus lactis strains, is undoubtedly the most well-known, studied and characterized bacteriocin and the only one with widespread commercial use in most major food-producer countries. The success of nisin has led many research groups in searches for novel bacteriocin-producer strains and bacteriocins over the last years. This has resulted in a growing range of potential biopreservatives, with most promising the pediocins. These are AMPs produced by Pediococcus spp., which are categorized in the 2nd class of bacteriocins from LAB, the known as “antilisterial” bacteriocins. The potential applications of bacteriocins from LAB in the food and health care sectors have attracted the strong interest of academia and the industry resulting in an impressive amount of published research on their production, purification, genetics and applications. Since chemical preservatives are being continuously questioned with regard of safety, the use of LAB and their metabolites is generally accepted by consumers as something natural and health promoting. This offers a logical explanation for the non-reducing interest of the food scientists in the particular area and the expanding trend of applications of LAB in the food industry. In this review, we will focus on the research and published literature on pediocins. Topics such as producer strains, characteristics of production in fermentation, structure of characterized pediocins, biochemical properties, antimicrobial spectra, and potential applications will be discussed in detail.