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Pregnancy: Theoretical Considerations
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|رشته های مرتبط با این مقاله||روانشناسی|
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|چاپ شده در مجله (ژورنال)||تحقیق روانکاوی: مجله علمی برای متخصصین بهداشت روانی – Psychoanalytic Inquiry: A Topical Journal for Mental Health Professionals|
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برای یک زن، دانستن این که قادر به فرزند آوری است اهمیت زیادی در توسعه حس زنانگی، هویت جنسیتی و عزت نفس او داشته است حتی اگر او به عنوان یک فرد بالغ و بزرگسال تصمیم گرفته باشد تا واقعاً بچه دار نشود. آگاهی از پتانسیل تولید مثلی (فرزند آوری) زن بخشی از خود انگاره اوست.
بسیاری از زنان بارداری خود را به تأخیر میاندازند و بنابر این زمانی مادر می شوندکه تفرد ، توسعه نفس و خود تحکیمی آنها تا یک سطح متفاوتی از یک زن جوانتر پیشرفت کرده است. این روند منجر به مطرح شدن سوالاتی در مورد اثرات مرحله زندگی فرد بر روی اهمیت و روند بارداری میشود.
|بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی|
F OR A WOMAN, KNOWING THAT she is capable of bearing children has been critical in the development of her sense of femininity, gender identity, and self-esteem, even if as an adult she chooses not to actually have children. The awareness of her reproductive potential is part of her self-image. The social changes of the past two decades have brought with them shifts in family patterns and lifestyles. With more effective control of contraception possible, and many more women working, women have been seeking fulfillment in terms other than a career of motherhood. Having a baby, although a pivotal event psychologically and physically, may not provide the only path to attain status as an adult woman. The implications of these changes for the development of those women who do not have children are now being explored by those concerned with adult development.
Many women have been delaying pregnancy, thus becoming mothers at a time when individuation, ego development, and consolidation of self have progressed to a level different from that of a younger women. This trend raises questions about the effects of the life stage of the individual on the significance and course of the pregnancy. There is new interest recently both in pregnancy and in psychoanalytic contribrutions to understanding it. When one considers the central place of sexuality in developmental and clinical psychoanalysis, the psychoanalytic literature on pregnancy and reproduction has been relatively limited. Knowledge about sexual functioning has been expanded by data from outside psychoanalysis. The sparsity of psychoanalytic work regarding pregnancy may reflect the same factors that have been responsible for the relative lack of scholarly and research attention to other aspects of women’s lives, such as menarche, menstruation, and menopause. Appropriately enough, women writers have been major contributors to understanding the nature of the experience of pregnancy. Helene Deutsch’s descriptive clinical work (1945), which focuses on women’s reproductive lives was written over a period of years and published almost half a century ago. Benedek and Rubenstein started about the same time. They published The Sexual Cycle in Women in 1942 and their studies of psychoanalytical natural and endocrine functioning in 1952. The focus on actual experience of pregnancy rather than its symbolic meaning has also been relatively recent. It was a prevailing idea among analysts that being pregnant was not compatible with being in analysis, considering the intrapsychic changes brought about by pregnancy, although once begun, analysis was not necessarily interrupted when pregnancy occurred. Deutsch considered the libido to be “turned inward” (1945 —all quotations are from Volume 2) in pregnancy and that the woman’s narcissistic investment in her body and self interfered with transference and investment in analytic work. In addition, she opposed interfering in a life situation that was better left “undisturbed in order to develop into real experiences” (Deutsch, 1945, p. 161n). Possibly this attitude resulted in fewer cases of women analyzed during a pregnancy, particularly during a normal pregnancy, and thus indirectly in less attention being paid to pregnancy in the literature on development. After presenting an overview of psychoanalytic concepts about motivation for pregnancy and the “procreative urge,” we shall focus on the developmental function of pregnancy. Pregnancy was not an important focus for Freud. As has Chasseguet-Smirgel (1970) pointed out, and earlier Horney (1926), Freud derived his views about female psychology and sexuality from theories about men and male sexuality. He acknowledged the limitations of his understanding in his well-known comment (1932), “That is all I had to say to you about femininity. It is certainly incomplete and fragmentary and does not always sound friendly” (p. 135). Freud believed that early sexuality was originally masculine “the sexuality of little girls is of a wholly masculine character” (1905, p. 219). The little girl felt castrated, and the baby she came to want was the symbolic substitution for the “missing” penis. He postulated two sources for the wish for a baby; the anal baby, which was associated with a passive feminine attitude, and the penis baby derived from the active masculinity of the phallic phase, after which the original wish for a penis is replaced by the wish for a child (Freud, 1925). According to Freud, the wish for a baby is not really the same as a wish for a pregnancy or a wish to be a mother. Nor did he connect this wish with the capacity for motherliness in the sense of the ability to relate to a child as an object. Freud never directly considered procreation as a wider goal. Early psychoanalytic writers sought the sources of procreative wishes or drives in instinctual drives and other biological forces. In humans the biological components of the wish to reproduce have been difficult to delimit, since in humans instinctual life is overlaid by many learned responses and by the impact of socialization. In animals one can trace sexual behavior as responses to specific hormonal variations; in humans this is only partially true, and the particular biological influences are more difficult to isolate. The procreative urge, the wish to reproduce, has complex origins. The wish for pregnancy and for a child can be considered components or aspects of this larger wish, but the two are not entirely overlapping. Equally, parenthood, involving the relation ship of caring for and nurturing another, was largely ignored by psychoanalytic writers, until, according to Anthony (1984), 1970 with the publication of Parenthood (Anthony & Benedek, 1970). Anthony underscores the differences between earlier psychoanalytic writings on parenthood, in which the perspective of the parent has not usually been the focus, and later works, which focused on the parenting experience itself. Parenthood evokes early affects and physical experiences of the parent as a child (Sadow, 1984) as well as upon identifications from all periods of life. Parenthood has been considered a developmental process (Panel, 1974; Schwartz, 1984) or phase (Benedek, 1959) which enables the individual to assume adult roles and fulfill adult societal expectations. An element of the procreative wish is therefore to be an adult like the parents, even if, as is often the case in teenage pregnancy, the actual process of becoming mature is short-circuited. One wishes to fulfill both narcissistic and oedipal wishes through parenthood. Erikson, in his concept of generativity as a developmental goal of adulthood (1963) describes “the concern is establishing and guiding the next generation” (p. 267), although he distinguishes “generativity” from actual procreation and includes creativity in his concept.