دانلود رایگان مقاله انگلیسی + خرید ترجمه فارسی
|عنوان فارسی مقاله:||بیوفوتون ها و ارتباط زیستی|
|عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:||Bio-photons and Bio-communication|
|مشخصات مقاله انگلیسی (PDF)|
|تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||۱۵ صفحه با فرمت pdf|
|رشته های مرتبط||زیست شناسی، فیزیک، شیمی و گرایش های زیست شناسی سلولی ملکولی، بیوفوتونیک، پرتوشناسی، بیوفیزیک، فوتونیک و مهندسی اپتیک و لیزر|
|مجله||مجله اکتشاف علمی (Journal of Scientific Exploration)|
|دانشگاه||گروه سلولی مولکولی، دانشگاه اوترخت، و موسسه بین المللی بیوفیزیک، آلمان|
|کلمات کلیدی||بیوفتون ها- روشنایی شیمیایی – ارتباط – گسیلش اشعه ی میتو ژنیک|
|مشخصات و وضعیت ترجمه مقاله (Word)|
|تعداد صفحات ترجمه مقاله||۱۷ صفحه با فرمت ورد، به صورت تایپ شده و با فونت ۱۴ – B Nazanin|
منشا اشعه های میتوژنتیک
مطالعات در خصوص گسیلش فوتون با لوله های فوتو مالتی پلایر
مکانیسم های بیو شیمیایی گسیلش فوتون
بعد اطلاعاتی بیوفتون ها
مدل هایی برای توجیه گسیلش فوتون از فعل و انفعالات مولکولی گروهی
بخشی از ترجمه:
موضوع ابعاد اطلاعات زیستی تصاعد فوتون دارای تاریخچه بیش از ۸۰ سال دارد. این نمونه ای از تحقیقات پژوهشی است که به طور ناکافی و کمی در زیست شناسی مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته اند.این مقاله به مرور فعالیت های پژوهشی طی سخ فاز اصلی این مطالعات پرداخته است.دوره اول مصادف با آزمایش گورویچ از اشعه دهی میتوژنیک است. تابش و اشعه دهی با تغییراتی در موجودات بیولوژیک که به عنوان شناساگر های اشعه دهی عمل می کنند شناسایی شد. دومین مرحله شامل تولید و کاربرد لوله های فتومالتی پلایر حساس برای شناسایی اشعه های متصاعد شده از ارگانیسم ها و سلول هاست.این مطالعات بر محور این سوال استوار هستند که منشا آنزیمی و شیمیایی اشعه دهی چیست.در این مرحله توجه ویژه ای به سوال این که اشعه دهی دارای چه خصوصیات بیوانفورماتیک می باشد است. در سومین دوره ی پژوهشی توجه ها بیشتر در رابطه با ابعاد اطلاعاتی گسیلش فوتون منعطف شد . این تحقیقات بیوفتون عمدتا در علوم زیستی انجام شده اند با این حال ایده هایی در خصوص دیگر ملاحضات وجود دارد به همین دلیل مقاله ی حال حاضر مروری بر یک بررسی منابع را انجام داده است که می تواند برای در اختیار گذاشتن برخی از اطلاعات در خصوص صفات بیوانفورماتیک بیوفتون ها مفید باشد.
این تحقیق بر ابعاد بیوانفورماتیک بیوفتون ها در دامنه ی مادون قرمز نزدیک تا اشعه ی فرابنفش بوده و به زمان الکساندر گروویچ به بیش از ۷۰ سال پیش بر می گردد.ایشان تاکید کرد که عملکرد بیولوژیکی اصلی نظیر تقسیم سلولی تحت تاثیر یک سری جریان های نوری ماورا بنفش بسیار ضعیف است که از خود سلول ها متصاعد یا گسیل می شود.
این خود نشان می دهد که اطلاعات بیو فتونیک برای بسیاری از دانشمندان حایز اهمیت است و می تواند موجب افزایش انگیزه ها در جهت رسیدن به اهداف شود.این مقاله به مرور فعالیت های گروه های پژوهشی در ۳ موضوع اصلی مهم در رابطه با اطلاعات بیوفتونیک است.
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
Abstract—The topic of bio-informational aspects of photon emission has a history of more than eighty years. It is an example of a research topic that is inadequately studied within mainstream biology. This article reviews the re- search activities during the three main phases of this line of this research. The first period is characterized by Gurwitsch-type experimentation on mitoge- netic radiation. Radiation was detected by changes in biological organisms that function as radiation detectors. The second phase is characterized by the development and application of sensitive photomultiplier tubes for the detection of radiation from organisms and cells. These studies were extended with the question about the chemical and enzymatic origin of radiation. In this phase hardly any attention was paid to the question of radiation with a bio-informational character. In the third period research is again focussed on the informational aspects of photon emission. This bio-photon research is hardly recognized in mainstream science so far, but in the opinion of the author it de- serves careful consideration. For this reason this article presents an overview of the literature which might be helpful for giving careful consideration to the bio-informational character of bio-photons. Keywords: bio-photons — chemiluminescence — communication — mito- genetic radiation Introduction The research on bio-informational aspects of bio-photons in the IR to UV range can be traced back to Alexander G. Gurwitsch more than seventy years ago. He emphasized that fundamental biological functions such as cell division are triggered by a very weak ultraviolet photo-current originating from the cells themselves. This postulate of bio-photonic information appears to many scientists to be pure speculation, and it provokes sometimes contempt rather than carefully considered objections. This article reviews the activities of research groups on three different main questions concerning this bio-photonic information. The first question deals with the developments in the evidence for photons originating from cells. Despite serious experimental difficulties it is now clear to every scientist working in this field that photon emission could be detected from nearly all living cells. 184 R. VanWijk The second question considers the origin of photon emission. Very weak photon emission has been looked upon so far mainly from the possible reactions and biochemical pathway that could be responsible for this phenomenon. In general, those studies were carried out without considering Gurwitsch’s idea of bio-information of photon emission. An alternative search for the ori- gin of photon emission has been carried out incorporating the informational aspect of photon emission. This type of explanation proposes the existence of a coherent electromagnetic field within cell populations and has led to the intro- duction of the term bio-photons. Bio-photons are characterized by their quantum character and are supposed to escape from a coherent field. This alternative explanation is supported by several arguments. The third question is the most decisive one from an empirical point of view. It is directed to the existence of bio-photon emission in relation with cellular interactions and biological function. In general the idea that beside, or even below, the biochemical level of control very weak electromagnetic interactions play a regulatory role in the living state has received relatively little attention. The present research has not yet reached the state required for the ultimate verification or falsification of the hypothesis on bio-photonic information in cell division and other cell physiological processes, as originally investigated and suggested by Gurwitsch. The Origin of Mitogenetic Rays The mystery of the sporadic arising of cell divisions was the starting point for Gurwitsch to carry out his famous “mitogenetic radiation” experiments in 1923. The idea that radiation generates cell division was based on his early studies (Gurwitsch, 1911) in which it was demonstrated that (1) there is a re- verse linear relationship between the surface areas of the meristemic cells and their division frequencies; (2) along the whole onion root meristem, cell surface areas increase according to the exponential law. The purely statistical character of spatial distribution of mitosis demonstrated in several objects (and particularly in onion roots) supported the concept that mitosis should be based upon a dual principle. That is, one of the factors which make a cell capa- ble of division is assumed to be endogenous (a “possibility factor”), while a second one (“realization factor”) is exogenous although it may arise in the same organism. These early experimental observations were interpreted in the following way: there exists a surface “principle K”, which remains constant during cell growth, and also a “principle A” which increases in a metabolic manner (Gur- witsch, 1922). The main problem was to elucidate the nature of the exogenous principle. Initially it seemed natural to look upon it as a chemical substance. However, cell division frequencies should then be proportional to the relation of K to a constantly increasing A, which contradicts the established fact of a re- verse linear relationship between cell division frequency and cell surface area. This contradiction led to the following suggestion: K and A sites are arranged on a cell surface as a permanently changing spatial mosaic. It is the mosaiclike configuration which plays a decisive role, the perception of an exogenous impulse by a cell surface may be considered as a resonance event. This led to the hypothesis that the exogenous division stimulating principle is not a chemical substance, but instead an oscillation process which may be a radiation. The experimental verification of the hypothesis that the exogenous factor is a form of radiation has evolved from the suggestion that at least some radiation should emanate from root cells into the surrounding space and that it would be most probable that detectable radiation would arise from the coneshaped tip of an onion root. An adequate detector should consist of a second root with cells ready to divide and really dividing with a certain average fre- quency, but at the same time capable of increasing the frequency. The necessity for comparison with control cells was also obvious. In that respect onion roots are suitable objects due to their radial symmetrical arrangement. Therefore, the revealing of a difference in mitotic numbers between the “irradiated” and the “shadowed” sides of the meristem after a unilateral local stimulation from another root seemed to be fairly possible. The first “mitogenetic” experiments conducted in 1923 were performed on about 130 root pairs (Gurwitsch, 1923). Already these experiments, in which a horizontally oriented inductor-root was brought to a distance of 1.5 to 2 mm from the medial surface of the meristem of the vertically oriented detector root during 1–۲ h, gave distinct positive results: the number of mitosis at the medial zone of the “illuminated” side was 20–۲۵% higher than on the other parts of the meristem. The physical nature of the mitogenetic factor was proven by using glass or quartz plates as filters and by a complete chemical isolation of the in- ducer from the detector sample. Later on, the signal spectral composition was shown to belong to the UV range, somewhat in between 190 and 300 nm. Although Gurwitsch is credited with the discovery of mitogenetic radiation, there were several earlier reports of similar phenomena. Scheminzky (1916) detected some high-energy radiation from various biochemical processes by means of photographic plates. He used cultures of yeasts and bacteria to pro- vide these biochemical processes. This work was confirmed in 1918 by Lud- wig (1918) who also used photographic plates to detect emissions from fer- menting yeasts. The news about the discovery spread very quickly throughout the scientific and public circles, and a large number of investigators, among them physiolo- gists, microbiologists, medical scientists, and physicists in Russia, Germany, France, Italy and other countries, tested the effects discovered by Gurwitsch and studied his hypothesis further. The Golden Age of mitogenetic rays lasted for about two decades and brought about a thousand of papers and several books (Gurwitsch & Gurwitsch, 1959). Gurwitsch’s work was supported by many Russian workers and several Western workers (Borodin, 1930; Rahn, 1936; Wolff & Ras, 1932), but many others (Bateman, 1935; Hollaender & Schoeffel, 1931; Richards & Taylor, 1932) were unable to detect any mitogeBio-Photons and Bio-Communication 185 186 R. VanWijk netic effect. A problem is that most of the publications, containing a lot of valuable data, have been written in Russian and are hence almost inaccessible to the scientific community; although the early reviews (Bateman, 1935; Hollaender & Claus, 1937) and the excellent book by Rahn (1936) have described this early mitogenetic work in detail. In view of the contradictory results obtained with biological detectors, some of the early workers, among them Bateman (1935) introduced physical detectors such as photographic plate and UV-sensitive Geiger tube in order to detect the UV photon emissions. In fact, the results using physical detectors were as variable as those obtained with biological detectors. These developments in combination with the disproving papers, the best known being that by Hollan- der and Claus (1937), Gray and Quellet (1933) and Lorenz (1934), played a fatal role in the whole story. It is worth mentioning, however, that the latter article seemed to be not so important scientifically. A number of scientists working in this field (not only those who worked with Gurwitsch, O. Rahn from USA among them) easily revealed some obvious experimental errors in this work which have not been hidden by the authors themselves. These errors in- cluded, among others, the use of too young yeast cultures for testing the mito- genetic effect, though it was many times pointed out by Gurwitsch and others that at this stage yeast cells are not sensitive to external photons. However, this criticism was ignored and the refutation of the existence of mitogenetic rays claimed by Hollander and Claus was given wide publicity, and the overall interest in and recognition of Gurwitsch discovery began to decline in West European countries and USA. Despite this, work continued in East European countries with surprisingly little acknowledgement of the negative results of the above Western workers. Another reason for the decline was certainly the World War II, destroying, to the greatest extent, just Germany and Russia— two centers of the most intense studies of the problem. One may add to this the subsequent Lysenko persecutions of biology in Russia. Only small remnants of the former laboratory of Gurwitsch continued to work in this field in very restrictive conditions after 1948. This group was headed many years by Gur- witsch’s daughter Anna, also a Professor of Biology (Gurwitsch, 1988). Later, mitogenetic rays (i.e., UV emission associated with cell cycles) were detected with the use of electronic photomultipliers in several laboratories (Chwirot et al., 1986; Chwirot, 1992; Konev et al., 1966). Studies on Photon Emission With Photomultiplier Tubes The newly developed photomultiplier (PM) tube, which proved to be a very sensitive and reliable method for detection of very weak light, led to a limited revival of interest. The very weak light in the visible region was first detected in the 1950s. The first studies (Strehler and Arnold, 1951) involved photon emission from green plants, including three species of algae, following irradiation with visible light. In 1954 and 1955, Colli et al. described weak visible re- gion luminescence from seeds germinating in the dark (Colli & Facchini, Bio-Photons and Bio-Communication 187 1954; Colli et al., 1955). In the 1960s several Russian groups headed by Tarusov et al. (1967), Vladimirov (1966), and Zhuravlev et al. (1968) studied the visible region luminescence from many plants and animal species. Konev and coworkers (Konev, 1967; Konev et al., 1966) were the first to employ the UV-sensitive PM tube to detect UV photon emission from living organisms. They repeated some of the classical mitogenetic work using synchronized cultures of Candida utilis in order to determine whether UV photon emission was connected with cell division. They detected a UV emission peak which preced- ed the first wave of cell division by about 1 h and a second weaker peak which corresponded in the same way to the second synchronous division step. Konev’s group studied (Mamedov et al., 1969) over 100 different species of organisms covering 8 systematic types, including 13 algal, 9 yeast, and 8 bacterial species. They detected photon emission from about a third of the algae, bacteria, fungi and insects examined, but in the higher plants and vertebrates all the species investigated displayed luminescence. Only the protozoa gave no detectable photon emission from any of the species studied. The question of the extent to which this is due to the detection technique itself is only partly answered. In this respect, it is interesting to note that, at least for one of the species of bacteria (Escherichia coli) which gave no detectable luminescence, subsequent workers (Tilbury and Quickenden, 1988; Wang et al., 1990) have observed significant photon emission. This is possibly due to the greater sensitivity of the more recent PM tubes. Coming back to the problem of the authenticity of the data of Gurwitsch’s school, we have to consider separately two questions: (1) Does ultra-weak photon emission of living systems in the visible and UV range really take place? (2) Does ultraviolet light really stimulate cell division? So far, a positive reply to the first question is today beyond any doubts—measuring photon emission of biological organisms is a routine procedure now. Before going into depth with the second question attention is paid first to the biochemical experiments following the detection of this photon emission: the question of photon emission origin.
دانلود رایگان مقاله انگلیسی + خرید ترجمه فارسی
|عنوان فارسی مقاله:||بیوفوتون ها و ارتباط زیستی|
|عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:||Bio-photons and Bio-communication|