دانلود ترجمه مقاله روابط بازرگانی متقابل و تجارت تخصصی میان آمریکا و کانادا – مجله تیلور فرانسیس

taylorfrancis2

 

 عنوان فارسی مقاله: روابط بازرگانی متقابل و تجارت تخصصی میان آمریکا و کانادا از سال ۱۹۸۹ تا ۲۰۰۱
 عنوان انگلیسی مقاله: Trade Specialization and Reciprocal Trading Relationships in Canada and the United States, 1989 and 2001
دانلود مقاله انگلیسی: برای دانلود رایگان مقاله انگلیسی با فرمت pdf اینجا کلیک نمائید
خرید ترجمه آماده: تماس بگیرید
کد مقاله r996

 

سال انتشار  ۲۰۰۸
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی ۲۲
تعداد صفحات ترجمه مقاله  ۲۲
مجله انجمن سالانه جغرافیدانان آمریکا
دانشگاه  دانشکده جرم شناسی، دانشگاه سایمون فریزر
کلمات کلیدی  –
نشریه تیلور و فرانسیس taylor and francis

 


 

بخشی از ترجمه:

 

  جریان های تجاری بین منطقه ای کانادا (استان ها) وایالات متحده ( ایالات) ، بزرگترین همکاری تجاری دو جانبه در جهان ، با استفاده از اندازه گیری از تخصص تجاری مشابه به بهر محل و با استفاده از استان ها و ایالات به عنوان واحدهای فضایی مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفته است.  تمرکز تحقیقات گذشته بررسی خوشه ها در جغرافیای جریان های تجاری بین المللی بر تجزیه و تحلیل واحدهای ملی با وجود این واقعیت است که واحدهای محلی الگوهای جغرافیایی تجارت را مجزا از ملت های مربوط به خود را نشان داده اند.  روابط تجاری منطقه ای از زمان استقرار تجارت آزاد بین کانادا و ایالات متحده آمریکا به عنوان نتیجه کاهش هزینه های دسترسی به بازارهای خارجی تبدیل شده است. این روابط تجاری جدید در حال حاضر بیشتر ایالات آمریکا و کمتر استانهای کانادا را ترکیب متحد کرده است.

 


 

بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:

 

In the past twenty years, international exportsof merchandise trade have more than doubled,whereas global output has increased by approximately50 percent (International Monetary Fund2005a, 2005b).Additionally, trade in services, althougha relatively small portion of international trade, is growingat a faster rate (Dicken 2003). Perhaps most important,economic growth is positively associated withinternational trade1 (see Noguer and Siscart 2005),making a nation’s involvement in the internationaleconomy important for its well-being. Understandingthe nature of international trade, including its geography,is therefore important for all nations.A body of research has emerged in recent years investigatingthe geography of international trade andthe formation of supranational trading regions (see K.Anderson and Norheim 1993; O’Loughlin and Anselin1996; J. P. Poon 1997; and J. P. H. Poon, Thompson,and Kelly 2000); however, despite the importanceof understanding the geography of internationaltrade at the national level, Hoare (1993, 701) notesthat a little-explored facet of the global economy is the wayregions within nations and different parts of the internationalcommunity interact through trade flows. . . . Giventhe well-established tendency for any one country to trademore with some overseas nations than with others weshould expect at least as much and probably more tradingpartnerspecialization on the part of that country’s constituentlocalities.Therefore, most of the information on trading relationshipsfound at the national level is simply based onaverages of the trading relationships that exist at thesubnational level.In North America, a number of studies have investigatedregional trade changes, but these studies eachfocus on one small region, or even one city (see Melvin1988; Warf and Cox 1990; Calzonetti 1991; McConnellandMacPherson 1991). Studies that investigate the exportsfrom U.S. states or their regional groupings tend toexamine the trade of U.S. states or regions with the “restof the world,” Canada as a whole, or regional groupingsof Canadian provinces (see Erickson and Hayward1991; Warf and Cox 1993; Hayward and Erickson 1995;Gazel and Schwer 1998; Coughlin and Wall 2003;Sawchuk and Sydor 2003). There is, however, some researchthat deals with all of Canada’s regions and theirrespective trading patterns with the United States.Brown (1998), dividing Canada and the UnitedStates into three regions, finds that the compositionof Canada–U.S. trade varies geographically: AtlanticCanada is dominantly involved in natural resource–based trade flows; Ontario has a broadly based compositionof trade flows dominated by manufacturing,particularly the automotive industry; and Cascadia’strade flows consist of manufactured goods and naturalresources. Norcliffe (1996), measuring the destinationsand origins of Canadian regions’ exports and importsat the national level, finds that Ontario and thePrairie provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba)have the highest proportions of imports fromthe United States (72.2 and 84.5 percent of importsin 1993, respectively), whereas Ontario has the highestproportion of exports to the United States (89.5 percent),largely due to the automotive industry. Quebecand the Prairies are also high at 78.9 and 75.3 percent,respectively. Dividing Canada into five regions and theUnited States into nine regions, Brown and Anderson(1999) find regional ties similar to those of Brown(1998) and Norcliffe (1996). They also find that geographicallyclose regions are the most integrated andthat intra-industry trade is highest in central Canada,followed by western Canada, the Atlantic provinces,and the Prairie provinces.Despite these interesting patterns, none of thesestudies incorporate a temporal component to investigateany changes in the spatial distribution of Canada–U.S. trade potentially arising from the Canada–UnitedStates Free Trade Agreement (CUFTA) or the NorthAmerican Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Pol`ese(2000) is the first to fill this gap, finding that Quebec ismore integrated with the rest of Canada than with Ontario,and Ontario is the least integrated with the rest ofCanada but themost integrated with theUnited States.Acharya, Sharma, and Rao (2003), using four U.S. andfive Canadian regions, find the following: Canadian exportsto New England and the Midwest have fallen, exportsto theNorthwest have remained constant, importsfor all three regions have remained relatively constant,and—the most striking result—there have been largeincreases for imports and exports with the U.S. South.This phenomenon is common across all five Canadianregions. Similar to past studies, British Columbia, thePrairies, and Atlantic provinces specialized in naturalresources; Quebec specialized in labor-intensive productsand Ontario specialized in manufactured goods(Acharya, Sharma, and Rao 2003).This relatively small literature on Canada–U.S. interregionaltrade is instructive, but limited in two ways.There are very few studies that measure regional changein trade over time, and regional groupings are determinedbefore the analysis of trade patterns. This articlecontributes to the literature on the geography of internationaltrade through an analysis of changing tradingpatterns using Canadian provinces and U.S. states asthe primary units of analysis and through the application(and extension) of the methods that measure tradespecialization and trading regions to a subnational level,using Canadian provinces and U.S. states as the initialunits of aggregation. The analysis uses the years 1989and 2001, the earliest and latest years available for highqualitydata on interregional trade at the time of analysis(the data for the intervening years are available but forreasons of brevity are not analyzed here). In what followsI examine the most recent theoretical approachesto international trade and economic integration andthen examine regional trade specialization.


 

 عنوان فارسی مقاله: روابط بازرگانی متقابل و تجارت تخصصی میان آمریکا و کانادا از سال ۱۹۸۹ تا ۲۰۰۱
 عنوان انگلیسی مقاله: Trade Specialization and Reciprocal Trading Relationships in Canada and the United States, 1989 and 2001
دانلود مقاله انگلیسی: برای دانلود رایگان مقاله انگلیسی با فرمت pdf اینجا کلیک نمائید
خرید ترجمه آماده: تماس بگیرید
کد مقاله r996

ارسال دیدگاه

نشانی ایمیل شما منتشر نخواهد شد.