|عنوان فارسی مقاله:||برنامه مهارت های زندگی برپایه ورزش های تیمی در ساختار آموزش جسمی|
|عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:||A team-sports-based life-skills program in a physical education context|
|رشته های مرتبط:||تربیت بدنی، فیزیولوژی فعالیت بدنی و تندرستی و روانشناسی ورزشی|
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|نشریه||الزویر – Elsevier|
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The present study aimed at examining the effectiveness of a team-sports-based life-skills program taught as part of physical education lessons. One hundred sixty-five sixth and eighth graders were assigned either in an experimental or in a control group and received an abbreviated version of SUPER, a team-sports-based program. The program focused on setting goals, on positive thinking, and on problem solving. Students were assessed on four sport-skills tests, knowledge about life skills, and beliefs about effective use of life skills. Results showed gains of the experimental group on two of the four sport-skills tests, knowledge and selfbeliefs.
Sport is a metaphor for life. This statement captures the widespread belief that sport participation is beneficial for youth because it promotes their capacity to deal with life’s challenges. However, respective research results have been equivocal and youth sport theorists warn that various factors will determine whether participating in sport will have positive or negative effects for youth. As Petitpas, Cornelius, Van Raalte, and Jones (2005) note ‘‘Sport can provide a wonderful forum for youth to learn about themselves and to acquire skills that can assist them throughout life, or it can create a negative environment that may have a detrimental effect on participants’ self-esteem confidence and physical self-efficacy’’ (p. 76). Therefore, it is probably not the mere participation in sport that enhances positive development but the individual’s experience in sport that may be the critical factor. For personal growth and development to be realized sport programs must be developed with this goal in mind. ‘‘Positive youth development refers to promoting competent, healthy, and successful youth and involves the production of experiences, supports and opportunities known to enhance positive developmental outcomes’’ (Benson, Scales, Hamilton, & Sesma, 2006, p. 895). Within this movement, training life skills is recognized to have a positive impact on youth development. According to World Health Organization (1999), teaching life skills is essential for the promotion of healthy child and adolescent development, as well as for the preparation of young people for changing social circumstances. Life skills enable individuals to succeed in the environments in which they live (Danish & Nellen, 1997). Life skills can be physical (e.g., taking a right posture), behavioral (e.g., communicating effectively), or cognitive (e.g., making effective decisions) (Danish & Donohue, 1995). It is recognized that sport can be used as a medium for enhancing youngsters’ development if it incorporates the teaching of skills and strategies useful for life. Thus, Petitpas et al. (2005) claim, ‘‘youth sport programs that promote psychosocial development are those that use sport as a vehicle to provide experiences that promote self-discovery and teach participants life skills in an intentional and systematic manner’’ (p. 66).