|عنوان فارسی مقاله:||تجربه اولیه اجتماعی، سازگاری های ارتباطی ارجاعی را در بچه های 5 ساله پیش بینی می کند|
|عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:||Early Social Experience Predicts Referential Communicative Adjustments in Five-Year-Old Children|
|رشته های مرتبط:||علوم اجتماعی و روانشناسی، زوانشناسی تربیتی، روانشناسی شناخت، جامعه شناسی|
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A large body of work has focused on children’s ability to attribute mental states to other people, and whether these abilities are influenced by the extent and nature of children’s social interactions. However, it remains largely unknown which developmental factors shape children’s ability to influence the mental states of others. Building on the suggestion that collaborative experiences early in life might be crucial for the emergence of mental coordination abilities, here we assess the relative contribution of social exposure to familial and non-familial agents on children’s communicative adjustments to their mental model of an addressee (‘audience design’). During an online interactive game, five-year-olds spontaneously organized their non-verbal communicative behaviors according to their beliefs about an interlocutor. The magnitude of these communicative adjustments was predicted by the time spent at daycare, from birth until four years of age, over and above effects of familial social environment. These results suggest that the degree of non-familial social interaction early in life modulates the influence that children’s beliefs have on their referential communicative behavior.
Humans often use un-observable variables like beliefs, desires, and intentions to disambiguate agents’ behavior, attributing mental states to other people and to oneself [1,2]. These mentalizing abilities emerge during early childhood  and variations in mentalizing skills appear to be related to social environmental factors . Among these factors, collaborative experiences of a child with adult group members might play a crucial role [5,6]. These interactions might allow children to gradually construct knowledge of the world, as well as knowledge of other people’s mental states, by capturing cognitive regularities that cooperative agents try to make transparent to the child . Eventually, children start using this knowledge to manipulate the mental states of other agents during referential communicative interactions. For instance, 4-year-old children use presumed knowledge of an interlocutor to select linguistic behaviors designed to change those mental states, producing more explicit descriptions of a toy when speaking to a blind as compared to a non-blind addressee , and simpler utterances towards a toddler than an adult . Five-year-old children can produce verbal requests that take into account the presumed knowledge of their interlocutor . However, it remains largely unknown how children learn to adjust their referential communicative behaviors to their mental model of an addressee. Here we elaborate on the suggestion that the extent and nature of the social interaction children experience will influence the development of children’s social understanding [5,7,11,12,13]. Humans are exceptional among existing hominids for experiencing early developmental exposure to cooperative nonkin , i.e. conspecifics that lack a genetic reason for collaborating, and it has been suggested that this developmental feature might boost motivational predispositions to share mental states with others . We quantify one aspect of this faculty through audience design, i.e. adjustments of communicative acts to the presumed abilities and knowledge of an interlocutor . Given that audience design presupposes control of the ability to share mental states with others, we focus on five-year-old children, i.e. children with fully-fledged theory of mind capacities . We quantify developmental exposure to two main sources of social interactions experienced by children between zero and four years of age, namely familial and non-familial experiences. The former were quantified in terms of years of experience with siblings, and parents’ level of education. The latter were quantified in terms of days per week of attendance to daycare [11,13,17,18,19]. Audience design effects were quantified in a controlled experimental setting involving the production of referential nonverbal behaviors with a communicative goal , exploiting a protocol previously validated in adults . In contrast to linguistic communication, the communicative behaviors evoked under these experimental conditions could not be directly based on previous concrete experiences. Accordingly, the novel communicative situation experienced by the children in this study allowed us to directly tap into their ability to influence the mental states of others through behaviors generated ex-novo. Five-yearold participants were told they were playing an online interactive game with a 2-year-old toddler and with a same-age peer, in alternation. In fact, a confederate performed the role of both addressees, while remaining blind to which one of the two roles he was performing in any given trial. Accordingly, both performance and response times of the two presumed addressees were matched.This feature of the protocol allowed us to test whether the mere belief that the child is communicating with addressees of different ability induces internally generated adjustments in the child behavior, over and above performance-related mutual adjustments [22,23]. Furthermore, the precise quantification of children behavior afforded by this protocol distinguished between beliefdriven adjustments restricted to the communicative components of the actions, and generic priming effects [24,25]. These procedures allowed us to test whether the social environment experienced by a child early during his development influences his ability to adjust a self-generated communicative behavior to his mental model of the addressee.