|عنوان فارسی مقاله:||خوشه بندی مبتنی بر پروتکل چند مسیره برای شبکه های حسگر بی سیم|
|عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:||Cluster based Multipath Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks|
|رشته های مرتبط:||مهندسی برق، فناوری اطلاعات و کامپیوتر، شبکه های مخابراتی، شبکه های کامپیوتری، مهندسی الکترونیک، سامانه های شبکه ای، هوش مصنوعی و برق مخابرات|
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Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists of low power sensor nodes. Energy is the main constraint associated with the sensor nodes. In this paper, we propose a cluster based multipath routing protocol, which uses the clustering and multipath techniques to reduce energy consumption and increase the reliability. The basic idea is to reduce the load of the sensor node by giving more responsibility to the base station (sink). We have implemented and compared the protocol with existing protocols and found that it is more energy-efficient and reliable.
WSN consists of low power and low cost embedded devices called sensor nodes. Sensor nodes sense the environment and generate the data for temperature, pressure, motion, fire, humidity and so on. The sensor node sends the data to the base station through the intermediate sensor nodes in multihop environment. In the sensor network with energy constraint environment, the network often requires energyefficient routing protocol to send the data. The data should reach the base station through a reliable path. The reliable path significantly reduces the retransmission of data, which can decrease congestion and energy consumption. So, the sensor node requires appropriate energy-efficient and reliable path for data transmission. In this paper, Cluster base Multipath Routing Protocol (CMRP) is proposed, which addresses the mentioned requirements. In WSN, the clustering technique reduces the data traffic in the network. It helps to minimize the energy consumption in the network. Multipath routing increases the reliability of the network, through many available paths. If the path between the source node and the sink fails, then the source node can choose the path from the available paths. The clustering and multipath technique increases the reliability and energy-efficiency of the network. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: related work is discussed in Section 2. The working principle and algorithm of the proposed model is discussed in Section 3. In Section 4 simulation parameter, results and analysis are discussed.
2. RELATED WORK
Bagheri et al. have proposed the protocol, where nodes are enabled by the GPS system. The cluster head section is based on the remaining energy of the node. The multipath routes are constructed through the cluster heads. A cluster head selects another path, if it fails. Quynh et al. have proposed an event-based multipath clustering protocol. When an event is detected, all nodes near the event will become active. One of the nodes close to the event having maximum residual energy elects itself as the cluster head. The rest of the active nodes join the cluster head and form the cluster. The cluster head chooses the relay node and backup relay node towards the sink to form the multipath. Mazaheri et al. have proposed a QoS base multipath hierarchical routing. Among the nodes in the range r elect the cluster head based on the remaining energy and the distance from the sink. For multipath construction, cluster head chooses the set of cluster heads within the range R (R > r) based on the residual energy, remaining buffer size, signal to noise ratio and distance to the sink. Jin et al. have proposed a Passive Cluster based Multipath Protocol (PPCMP). In this protocol, the node near to the event becomes the candidate cluster head and waits for a certain time. If it does not receive any cluster head advertisement, it becomes the cluster head and broadcasts the advertisement in its range (R). The node resides within R 2 range joins the cluster and rest of the nodes up to the range R become the candidate cluster head and follow the same procedure for cluster formation. Branch aware flooding method  is used to construct the mutipath between the sink and the source node. For the next time if any source detected the event, the same available set of clusters are used, but new set of multipath is required for data transmission. In the existing protocols [2, 9, 7, 4] the control packet overhead is more, which leads to the higher-energy consumption. It directly affects the lifetime of the network. This protocols give more emphasis on reliability through the mutipath but neglect some QoS parameters such as end-to-end delay, control overhead and network lifetime. Zaman et al. have proposed a protocol where the network is divided among the number of levels. One cluster head is elected in each level. The cluster head collects the data from the nodes of that level and transmits it to the lower-level cluster head using directional flooding technique . Almalkawi et al. have proposed a cross layer based clustered multipath routing. The nodes are heterogeneous and randomly deployed. The sink initiated the cluster formation by broadcasting the control packet and based on received signal strength, the powerful nodes become the cluster heads. The cluster heads are classified in different levels. They send the data through the upper level cluster head. A diagnosis based clustering and multipath routing are proposed in . For cluster formation, base station randomly chooses a specific number of candidate cluster heads on certain probability. The candidate cluster head checks the faulty status of each other. Once the faulty node is detected, it is removed from the network. Among the neighbor candidate cluster head having the highest residual energy becomes the cluster head and the non-cluster head nodes join the closest cluster head and form the cluster. For multipath construction, a cluster head chooses the cluster head within the 2R range having the lowest distance from the sink. The protocols [12, 5, 1] do not maintain the proper path. They only have the information regarding neighbor nodes. They have to choose a node among the neighbor list without knowing their current residual energy or connectivity with the other nodes. It decreases the reliability of the networks. Wang et al. have proposed a hierarchical multipath routing protocol. Each node has a hop count value which indicates the distance to the sink. Based on the hop count the node selects the parent and alternate parent node to make the multipath. The network looks like a tree with the sink as the root node. Using hierarchical structure, it reduces some amount of data traffic and energy consumption. Yang et al. have proposed an event based routing protocol. The node closest to the event becomes the cluster head and the node which satisfies certain threshold joins the cluster head. The ant colony algorithm was used to create multipath between the cluster head and the sink. The cluster head dynamically chooses the routing path between the available path to send the aggregated data to the sink. The protocols [7, 1, 6, 10, 11] have not used any load balancing technique among the nodes. It leads to mismanagement of the network and reduces the throughput and the network lifetime.