|عنوان فارسی مقاله:||تصمیم و مفهوم استراتژیک|
|عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:||Strategic Intent|
|رشته های مرتبط:||مدیریت|
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|نشریه||BEST OF HBR|
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بیشتر شرکتهای برجسته با جاه طلبیهایی شروع به کار کرده اند که خیلی بزرگتر از منابع و توانایی هایشان بوده اند. اما آنها وسواس برد در همه سطوح سازمان را ایجاد کرده اند و دهه ها است که این فکر دائم در سر آنها است.
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
Sixteen years ago, when Gary Hamel, then a lecturer at London Business School, and C.K. Prahalad, a University of Michigan professor, wrote “Strategic Intent,”the article signaled that a major new force had arrived in management. Hamel and Prahalad argue that Western companies focus on trimming their ambitions to match resources and, as a result, search only for advantages they can sustain. By contrast, Japanese corporations leverage resources by accelerating the pace of organizational learning and try to attain seemingly impossible goals.Thesefirrns foster the desire to succeed among their employees and maintain it by spreading the vision of global leadership. This is how Canon sought to “beat Xerox” and Komatsu set out to“encircle Caterpillar.” This strategic intent usually incorporates stretch targets, which force companies to comPete in innovative ways. In this McKinsey Awardwinning article, Hamel and Prahalad describe four techniques that Japanese companies use: building layers of advantage,searching for“loose bricks,”changing the terms of engagement, and competing through collaboration Today managers in many industries are worling hard to match the competitive advantages of their new global rivals. They are moving manufacturing offshore in search of lower labor costs, rationalizing product lines to capture global scale economies, instituting quality circles and just-in-time production, and adopting Japanese human resource practices. When competitiveness still seems out of reach, thay form strategic alliances-often with the very companies that upset the competitive balance in the first place. Important as these initiatives are, few of them go beyond mere imitation. Too many companies are expending enormous energy simply to reproduce the cost and quality advantages their global competitors already enjoy. Imitation may be the sincerest form of flattery, but it will not lead to competitive revitalization. Strategies based on imitation are transparent to competitors who have already mastered them. Moreover, successful competi- Strategic Intent BEST OF HBR 1989 Gary Hamel is a visiting professor at London Business School and the chairman of Strategos, an international consulting company based in Chicago. C.K. Prahalad is the Harvey C. Fruehauf Professor of Business Administration and a professor of corporate strategy and international business at the Stephen M. Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. tors rarely stand still. So it is not surprising that many executives feel trapped in a seemingly endless game of catch-up, regularly surprised by the new accomplishments of their rivals. For these executives and their companies, regaining competitiveness will mean rethinling many of the basic concepts of strategy.’ As “strategy” has blossomed, the competitiveness of Western companies has withered. This may be coincidence, but we think not. We believe that the application of concepts such as “strategic fit” (between resources and opportunities), “generic strategies” (low cost versus differentiation versus focus), and the “strategy hierarchy” (goals, strategies, and tactics) has often abetted the process of competitive decline. The new global competitors approach strategy from a perspective that is fundamentally different from that which underpins Western management thought. Against such competitors, marginal adjustments to current orthodoxies are no more likely to produce competitive revitalization than are marginal improvements in operating efficiency. (The sidebar “Remaking Strategy” describes our research and summarizes the two contrasting approaches to strategy we see in large multinational companies.) Few Western companies have an enviable track record anticipating the moves of new global competitors. Why? The explanation begins with the way most companies have approached competitor analysis. rnically, competitor analysis focuses on the existing resources (human, technical, and financial) of present competitors. The only companies seen as a threat are those with the resources to erode margins and market share in the next planning period. Resourcefulness, the pace at which new competitive advantages are being built, rarely enters in. In this respect, traditional competitor analysis is like a snapshot of a moving car. By itself, the photograph yields little information about the car’s speed or direction-whether the driver is out for a quiet Sunday drive or warming up for the Grand Prix. Yet many managers have learned through painful experience that a business’s initial resource endowment (whether bountiful or meager) is an unreliable predictor of future global success. Think back: In 1970, few Japanese companies possessed the resource base, manufacturing volume, or technical prowess of U.S. and European industry leaders. Komatsu was less than 35% as large as Caterpillar (measured by sales), was scarcely represented outside Japan, and relied on just one product line-small bulldozers-for most of its revenue. Honda was smaller than American Motors and had not yet begun to export cars to the United States. Canon’s first halting steps in the reprographics business looked pitifully small compared with the $4 billion Xerox powerhouse. If Western managers had extended their competitor analysis to include these companies, it would merely have underlined how dramatic the resource discrepancies between them were. Yet by 1985, Komatsu was a $2.8 billion company with a product scope encompassing a broad range of earth-moving equipment, industrial robots, and semiconductors. Honda manufactured almost as many cars worldwide in 1987 as Chrysler. Canon had matched Xerox’s global unit market share. The lesson is clear: Assessing the current tactical advantages of known competitors will not help you understand the resolution, stamina, or inventiveness of potential competitors. Sun-tzu, a Chinese military strategist, made the point 3,000 years ago: “All men can see the tactics whereby I conquer,” he wrote, “but what none can see is the strategy out of which great victory is evolved.” Companies that have risen to global leadership over the past 20 years invariably began with ambitions that were out of all proportion to their resources and capabilities. But they created an obsession with winning at all levels of the organization and then sustained that obsession over the i@ to 20-year quest for global leadership. We term this obsession “strategic intent.” On the one hand, strategic intent envisions a desired leadership position and establishes the criterion the organization will use to chart its progress. Komatsu set out to “encircle Caterpillar.” Canon sought to “beat Xerox.” Honda strove to become a second Ford-an automotive pioneer. All are expressions of strategic intent.