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|عنوان فارسی مقاله:
|نقد و بررسی شبیه سازهای رگ به رگ شدگی وارونگی زانو در آزمایشگاه بیومکانیک
|عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
|Review of ankle inversion sprain simulators in the biomechanics laboratory
|رشته های مرتبط:
|تربیت بدنی، بیومکانیک ورزشی، آسیب شناسی و حرکات اصلاحی
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|الزویر – Elsevier
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Ankle inversion ligamentous sprain is one of the most common sports injuries. The most direct way is to investigate real injury incidents, but it is unethical and impossible to replicate on test participants. Simulators including tilt platforms, trapdoors, and fulcrum devices were designed to mimic ankle inversion movements in laboratories. Inversion angle was the only element considered in early designs; however, an ankle sprain is composed of inversion and plantarflexion in clinical observations. Inversion velocity is another parameter that increased the reality of simulation. This review summarised the simulators, and aimed to compare and contrast their features and settings.
Ankle inversion ligamentous sprain is very common in sports. It accounts for > 80% of all ankle injuries, and the recurrence rate is as high as 80%.1 Individuals having recurrent ankle sprains are highly susceptible to chronic ankle instability and stiffness.2 Extensive clinical and basic science research on this injury has been conducted.3e5 The ankle complex consists of three articulations: the talocrural joint, the subtalar joint, and the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis. These joints allow the rearfoot to move as a single unit in multiplanes rather than in one single plane.6 Most of the ankle injuries take place during jump landing7 when the foot is inverted and plantarflexed,8 also known as supination.9 Excessive supination can damage the lateral ligament complex structure. Three main ligaments are found in this complex: the anterior talofibular ligament, the posterior talofibular ligament, and the calcaneofibular ligament. Among these three ligaments, the anterior talofibular ligament is most vulnerable because it bears the greatest strain when the foot undergoes plantarflexion.10 It has the lowest ultimate load of 138.9 N,11 which makes it the first ligament to be injured in inversion sprain cases.12 Various approaches were reported in the literature to understand the injury mechanism quantitatively. The biomechanics of ankle supination sprain was first evaluated in cadaver studies.13e15 The computational forward dynamic method was performed to determine the influence of foot position at touchdown on ankle sprain susceptibility by simulating side-shuffle movement kinematics.16 Injuries were captured by calibrated motion analysis equipment in biomechanics laboratories occasionally. Three injury case reports with kinematics data have been published recently.17e19 The most direct way to study injury mechanism is to investigate real incidents; however, it is impossible and unethical to perform experiments that are intentionally hurting the test participants. To study ankle inversion sprain movements in calibrated environment, subinjury trials could be carried out with the assistance of tilt platforms, trapdoors, and fulcrum devices. This review provides information on the existing ankle inversion simulators. In addition, it compares and contrasts their features in terms of their inversion angles, inversion velocities, supination angles, and appearance (see Table 1).