دانلود رایگان مقاله انگلیسی انگیزه آموزشی و جهت گیری های هدف دستیابی به همراه ترجمه فارسی
|عنوان فارسی مقاله:||انگیزه آموزشی و جهت گیری های هدف دستیابی|
|عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:||Educational motivation and students’ achievement goal orientations|
|رشته های مرتبط:||علوم تربیتی، مدیریت و برنامه ریزی آموزشی و تکنولوژی آموزشی|
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|نشریه||الزویر – Elsevier|
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بخشی از ترجمه فارسی مقاله:
۲-مدل های اصلی جهت گیری های هدف دستیابی
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
This paper aims to enhance teachers’ understandings of the nature and importance of students’ achievement goal orientations in elementary mathematics education. In particular, the study includes a theoretical background about what achievement goal orientation is, and the nature of students’ goal orientations. Next, a literature review is provided about the major models identified in goal theory. Then, a discussion is made about why achievement goal orientations are important in mathematics education, supported with the research findings in the literature. Finally, a conclusion is made to summarize the main arguments discussed in the previous parts, with specific suggestions to mathematics teachers.
۱٫ Introduction Many psychologists and educators have long considered students’ motivation as an important factor for successful school learning (Ryan & Connell, 1989). Since the early 1970’s, there has been a sustained research focus on how students’ motivation impact learning and classroom performance (Linnenbrink & Pintrich, 2002). Research in this area has pointed out that students’ motivation predict both the quality of engagement in school learning (Ames, 1992) and the degree to which students seek out or avoid challenging situations and persist in the face of difficulties (Elliott & Dweck, 1988). Especially, in recent years, education professionals have been interested in one type of motivation referred to as achievement motivation (Ames, 1992), which is concerned with what, why, and how students are motivated in different learning situations (Pintrich, 2005). Within this literature, achievement goals, also referred as “purpose goals” (Pintrich, 2005, p.473), are related with the whys of students’ learning. They are based on students’ beliefs about what is important in an achievement situation (Ames, 1992). For example, a student may try to learn mathematics to pursue the goal of increasing his or her competence in mathematics, whereas another student may learn mathematics to display ability or avoid unfavorable judgments about his or her competence (Elliott & Dweck, 1988). Achievement goal theory posits that students’ behavior in an achievement setting is guided by the achievement goals they construe for learning (Ames, 1992; Pintrich, 2000), and these goals determine their approach to, engagement in, and evaluation of performance in school learning (Urdan, 1997). Yet, the adoption of achievement goals is a dynamic and multifaceted phenomenon (Linnenbrink & Pintrich, 2002), which is a situated and domain specific variable depending on the instructional efforts and contextual characteristics of the learning environment (Linnenbrink & Pintrich, 2002). In particular, students adopting different achievement goals can be seen as approaching a situation with different concerns, asking different questions, and seeking different information (Dweck & Elliott, 1983). Achievement goal theory sustains that students’ achievement goals are what best explains their cognitions, behaviors, and motivation in learning (Urdan & Maehr, 1995), and a large body of research has demonstrated the validity of using achievement goal theory to understand and promote adaptive behaviors in learning (Meahr & Anderman, 1993; Pintrich & Schunk, 1996).
۲٫ The major models of achievement goal orientations In literature, two major goal orientations have been identified that function in an achievement situation: mastery goal orientation and performance goal orientation (Ames, 1992; Dweck, 1986; Nicholls, 1984). These two goal orientations have alternatively been labeled as ‘task-involvement goal orientation’ and ‘ego-involvement goal orientation’ (Nicholls, 1984) or ‘learning goal orientation’ and ‘performance goal orientation’ (Dweck, 1986), respectively. Yet, even if the terminologies differ, the primary difference between these two types of goal orientations is whether learning is valued as an end in itself or as a means to reach some external goals (Meece, Blumenfeld, & Hoyle, 1988). In particular, students with mastery goals focus upon the task, and prefer situations where they can expand new skills and knowledge (Nicholls, 1989). They usually evaluate themselves using “selfreferenced standards” (Ames, 1992, p. 262), such as Have I learned? Have I improved? (Pintrich, 2000). On the other hand, students with performance goals focus upon the self, and prefer situations where they can demonstrate their ability and compare it with other students (Nicholls, 1989). These students usually evaluate themselves using interpersonal norms, such as Did I do better than other students in the class? Do others think that I am smart? (Pintrich, 2000). Many studies have revealed that a mastery goal orientation is associated with adaptive pattern of achievement related outcomes, such as having high levels of self efficacy and interest (Middleton & Midgley, 1997); holding positive attitudes in relation to tasks and the self (Turner & Patrick, 2004); persisting longer on difficult tasks (Elliott & Dweck, 1988); asking help from peers (King, 1992); and using various metacognitive and self regulation strategies (Urdan & Midgley, 2003). On the other hand, findings on performance goals is somehow mixed (Harackiewicz, Barron, Pintrich, Elliot, & Thrash, 2002; Pintrich, 2000). A number of research findings relate performance goals with adaptive learning outcomes, whereas some others relate with maladaptive outcomes. At this point, goal theorists decided to separate performance orientation into two dimensions: performance approach and performance avoidance (Elliot & Church, 1997; Harackiewicz Barron, & Elliot, 1998; Middleton & Midgley, 1997). This distinction fundamentally bases upon whether students want to look competent or avoid looking incompetent at their schoolwork (Harackiewicz, Barron, & Elliot, 1998). Research conducted according to this new distinction points out that performance approach goals do associate with adaptive achievement behaviors, such as high levels of self efficacy (Elliott & Harackiewicz, 1996), task persistence, and strategy use (Wolters, 2004). On the other hand, research on performance avoidance goals shows that holding these goals is associated with a range of maladaptive behaviors, such as low levels of self efficacy (Elliott & Harackiewicz, 1996), use of self handicapping strategies, avoidance of help seeking behaviors (Kaplan et al, 2002), and low task engagement (Elliot, 1999).