دانلود ترجمه مقاله طراحی یکپارچه تاسیسات با رویکرد تکاملی توسط الگوریتم شبکه تابع – مجله اسپرینگر



 عنوان فارسی مقاله: طراحی یکپارچه تاسیسات با رویکرد تکاملی توسط الگوریتم شبکه تابع
 عنوان انگلیسی مقاله: Integrated Facility Design using an Evolutionary Approach with a Subordinate Network Algorithm
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سال انتشار  ۱۹۹۸
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی  ۱۰ صفحه
تعداد صفحات ترجمه مقاله  ۱۰ صفحه
مجله مهندسی صنایع
دانشگاه  پیتزبورگ
کلمات کلیدی  –
نشریه اسپرینگر springer3


فهرست مطالب:


۱  مقدمه
۲  فرمول نویسی و روش حل
۱  ۲  شیوه تکاملی
۲  ۲ مکان I/O و متریک فاصله در تابع هدف
۳  مسائل و نتایج تست
۴  نتایج



بخشی از ترجمه:


 ۱ مقدمه

مشکلات مربوط به طراحی تاسیسات ،خانواده ای از مشکلات طراحی را در برمی گیرند که شامل تقسیم بندی منطقه مسطح به دپارتمان ها یا مراکز کاری ناحیه مربوطه به منظور تقلیل و کاهش هزینه های وابسته به برهم کنش های طراحی شده بین دپارتمان ها می شوند. این هزینه ها معمولاً بازتابی از هزینه های جابجایی مواد در میان دپارتمان ها می باشند. چنین مسائلی در بسیاری از سازمان ها، من جمله طراحی باتری تولیدی، طراحی بیمارستان، و طراحی مرکز خدمات، رخ می دهند. با هر معیار پولی، طراحی تاسیسات، یکی از مسائل مهم بوده و با تلاش تولیدکنندگان برای پاسخگویی و چابک شدن ، حتی اهمیت بیشتری نیز پیدا می کند. برای تولید کنندگان آمریکایی، بین ۲۰ تا ۵۰ درصد از کل هزینه های عملیاتی صرف جابجایی مواد شده و طراحی یک تاسیسات مناسب ، می تواند این هزینه ها را حداقل ۱۰ تا ۳۰ درصد کاهش دهد.

 ۴٫ نتایج
استفاده از روش ابتکاری متا GA انعطاف پذیر با الگوریتم بهینه سازی شبکه تابعه، امکان بهینه سازی موثر و کارآمد طراحی تاسیساتی را فراهم می آورد که شبیه به طراحی های فیزیکی می باشند. دراینجا متریک فاصله جدیدی که بازتابی درست تر از هزینه های جابجایی مواد نسبت به متریک مشهور فاصله مرکز تا مرکز بخشی میباشد، توسعه یافت. متریک فاصله محیط با مکان ورودی و خروجی هر بخش جفت شده است. بدین طریق امکان بهینه سازی همزمان چهار سطح مسئله طراحی تاسیسات فراهم می آید: مکان و موقعیت بخش در تاسیسات، اشکال بخش در محدودیت های خاص، استقرار I/O و مسیرهای پیمایش در امتداد محیط و فضای احاطه کننده بخش. از آنجایی که طراحی تاسیسات ، دارای شاخه های پولی معنادار و قابل توجهی است، در نتیجه ارتقاء شیوه های بهینه سازی به فرمول های واقعی ولو پیچیده تر، موجب شکل گیری مزایای قابل توجهی دردراز مدت می شود.

بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:


۱٫ Introduction

Facility design problems are a family of design problems involving the partitioning ofa planar region into departments or work centers of given area, so as to minimize thecosts associated with projected interactions between departments. These costs usuallyreflect material handling costs among departments. Such problems occur in manyorganizations, including manufacturing cell design, hospital design, and service centerdesign. By any monetary measure, facilities design is an important problem and onethat has assumed even greater importance as manufacturers strive to become moreagile and responsive (Tompkins, 1997). For U.S. manufacturers, between 20% to50% of total operating expenses are spent on material handling and an appropriatefacilities design can reduce these costs by at least 10% to 30% (Meller and Gau,1996). Dr. James A. Tompkins, one of the seminal researchers in the field, recentlywrote, “Since 1955, approximately 8 percent of the U.S. GNP has been spent annuallyon new facilities. In addition, existing facilities must be continually modified…Theseissues represent more than $250 billion per year attributed to the design of facilitysystems, layouts, handling systems, and facilities locations…” (Tompkins, 1997).Altering facility designs due to incorrect decisions, forecasts or assumptions usuallyinvolves considerable cost, time and disruption of activities. On the other hand, gooddesigns can reap economic and operational benefits for a long time period. Therefore, computational time is not an important issue for these design decisions, instead thecritical aspect is layouts that translate readily into physical reality and minimizematerial handling costs. The problem primarily studied in the literature has been“block layout” which only specifies the placement of the departments, without regardfor aisle structure and material handling system, machine placement withindepartments or input/output (I/O) locations. Block layout is usually a precursor tothese subsequent design steps, termed “detailed layout.” Two recent survey articleson the facility design problem are Kusiak and Heragu (1987) and Meller and Gau(1996).The problem was originally formalized by Armour and Buffa (1963) as follows.There is a rectangular region, R, with fixed dimensions H and W, and a collection of nrequired departments, each of specified area aj and dimensions of hj and wj, whosetotal area, åjj a = A = H´W. There is a material flow F(j,k) associated with each pairof departments (j,k) which generally includes a traffic volume in addition to a unit costto transport that volume. There may also be fixed costs between departments j and k.F(j,k) might also include inter-floor costs. The objective is to partition R into nsubregions representing each of the n departments, of appropriate area, in order to where d(j,k,P) is the distance between the centroid of department j and the centroid ofdepartment k in the partition P. This centroidal distance is easy to calculate and it isintuitive in that the mass of material is considered to move between the centers ofdepartments along the shortest rectilinear (Manhattan) or Euclidean distance.However, the centroid distance metric is not realistic in that it ignores the aislestructure that is present in all facilities, where the aisles are normally located along thedepartmental perimeters and connect I/O points in each department.Because of the computational complexities in optimizing multiple and non-linearobjectives and constraints, only limited work has been done to improve upon thecentroid to centroid distance metric; distance along aisles (Benson and Foote, 1997and Tretheway and Foote, 1994) and expected distance using integration (Bozer andMeller, 1997). The recent work of Benson and Foote (1997) in particular, considersthe placement of aisles and I/O points after the relative location of the departmentsand the general aisle structure have been selected. Related work on integrated facilitylayout that considers machine placement includes papers by Nagi and others(Harhalakis, et al., 1996 and Kane and Nagi, 1997). This work uses predefineddepartmental shapes set on a grid covering the facility space. In Harhalakis et al.(1996), Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm is used to calculate the rectilinear distanceto and from pre-specified I/O points. In Kane and Nagi (1997), I/O points are placedduring the optimization and a constraint is imposed to encourage aisles that arestraight. Both papers use a simulated annealing heuristic to alter departmentalplacement. Another related work is by Banerjee et al. (1997) where a geneticalgorithm finds a “rough” layout that is then fully defined using a subordinatemathematical programming routine. The number of I/O’s per department is prespecifiedand then they are optimally located with the department placement.Rectilinear distance (but not along departmental perimeters) is calculated between I/O points.This paper seeks to improve upon these attempts at integrated facility design byusing a perimeter distance metric. If aisles have negligible area compared to the plantarea and aisle capacity and direction of flow are not considered (i.e., two way flowthrough each aisle is allowed), I/O points can be placed concurrently with blocklayout, producing a one stage optimization procedure that considers material flowfrom I/O to I/O along departmental perimeters. This still does not achieve the idealsituation where a true aisle structure will also be optimally designed concurrently.This simplification, instead, assumes that all department perimeters are legitimateaisles.2. Formulation and Solution MethodologyThe basic assumption is that the departments must be rectangular, of specified area,and fit within a rectangular bounding facility that is equal to, or larger than, the sum ofthe departmental areas. The formulation used is “flexbay” of Tate and Smith (1993,1995) that is a more restrictive version of a slicing tree formulation (Tam, 1992a and1992b) (see Figure 1). Flexbay makes cuts in a single direction to establish a set ofbays that can vary in area. The bays are then subdivided into departments. Theflexbay encoding can enforce both departmental areas and departmental shapes,through use of a maximum aspect ratio constraint1 or a minimum departmental sidelength constraint for a stated department area. The flexbay approach can only designdepartments that are rectangular; therefore any irregular departments would have tosomehow be cast as rectangular components.


 عنوان فارسی مقاله: طراحی یکپارچه تاسیسات با رویکرد تکاملی توسط الگوریتم شبکه تابع
 عنوان انگلیسی مقاله: Integrated Facility Design using an Evolutionary Approach with a Subordinate Network Algorithm
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