|عنوان فارسی مقاله:||بررسی مباحث کلیدی متداول و رایج و وضعیت رمزنگاری|
|عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:||A Survey on Current Key Issues and Status in Cryptography|
|رشته های مرتبط:||مهندسی برق، کامپیوتر، امنیت اطلاعات، مخابرات امن و رمزنگاری|
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Internet applications are increased and growing at very fast. Owing towards the technological development, secured way of data transmission over the internet is becoming a questioning task. Intruders hack the data and use it for their beneficial purpose. To avoid these undesirable acts, cryptography is used to ensure security of the covert and secure message. Although encrypted data is difficult to decipher, it is relatively easy to detect. Strong encryption algorithms and proper key management techniques for the systems will helps in achieving confidentiality, authentication and integrity of data. In this research work various encryption (symmetric and asymmetric) algorithms have been studied. Literature Survey has been carried out for cryptography by incorporating key papers related to data encryption based on performance metrics (Security and Time constraints). From this, the observation and future work has been identified.
The volume of data is exploding and complexity of data is growing. Above 93% of all data is born digital. The amount of information added annually to the digital universe was about 988 EB (almost 1ZB). The digital universe will have 50 fold growths from beginning of 2010 to the end of 2020. The various information are collected from the sources like books, eBooks, images, journals, research publications, government documents, databases, etc. So, there is a need for securing these sources and applications. Data security is one of the essential components of an organization to keep the information safe from various organization competitors. It will help to ensure the privacy of user personal information from others who are accessing. Time and securely transmission of data is always an important aspect for all organizations. Security of the system is classified in two main types as shown in Fig.1 below. Cryptography plays a major role in protecting the secret information in various applications. Information security is one of an important area of research under cryptography. The applications such as e-banking, ecommerce, medical databases, e-mail, and some more, all of them require the exchange of private confidential information. Military secret message is used to protect the National Security in military application. These are some of the applications involved. Cryptography and steganography are closely related concepts. Cryptography is secret writing and steganography is about hidden writing. Watermarking is other data hiding method similar to steganography.
A. Cryptography goals Cryptography has some goals. These goals can be either achieve all at the same time in one application, or only one of them in one application. These goals are: 1. Authentication: To prove their own identities. Example: Login access. 2. Confidentiality: This ensures that nobody can understand the received message except the one who has the decipher key. 3. Data Integrity: The receiver receives message which has not been modified or altered from its original form. 4. Non-Repudiation: Prove that the sender sent this message, and the message was received by the specified person, so the recipient cannot claim that the message was not sent . 5. Access Control: Process of preventing an unauthorized use of resources. This goal controls who can have access to the resources, if one can access, under which restrictions and conditions the access can be occurred, and what is the permission level of a given access.
B. General Model and Fundamental Concepts Cryptology: The field of both cryptography and cryptanalysis is called cryptology . Cryptography: It is the transformation of readable and understandable data into another form which cannot be understood in order to secure data. A cryptography is a Greek word. “Kryptos” means hidden, and “graphikos” which means writing. Crypto Analyst (Cryptanalyst): A person who is an expert in analyzing and breaking codes.Computer security: A set of tools are used to protect any data from intruders/hackers, theft, corruption, or natural disaster while allowing these data to be available to the users at the same time. One example of these tools is the Kaspersky antivirus program . Network security: It refers to any activity designed with some goals like integrity, confidentiality and protecting the data during their transmission on a network. Information security: It is about how to prevent attacks, and to detect attacks on information-based systems . Fig.2 explains about the general model for cryptography. Plaintext: Original text message which has to be encrypted. Cipher text: Encrypted text message. Key: It is a word or value that is used for encrypting the plain text or decrypts the cipher text . Encryption: The method of converting the data into other coded form with the help of key Decryption: A method of transforming the encrypted data to the original form with the help of key. Section 2 discusses the literature survey. Section 3 introduces the cryptographic types. Section 4 discusses the observations. Section 5 & 6 will be future direction and conclusion.