|عنوان فارسی مقاله:||اثر الیاف توخالی خودشفا بر خواص مکانیکی کامپوزیت های پلیمری|
|عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:||The effect of self-healing hollow fibres on the mechanical properties of polymer composites|
|رشته های مرتبط:||مهندسی پلیمر، مهندسی نساجی، کامپوزیت، نانو فناوری پلیمر، نساجی و علوم الیاف|
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بخشی از ترجمه فارسی مقاله:
این مقاله یک مطالعه تحقیقی تجربی درباره اثر الیاف توخالی مورداستفاده برای خودشفایی در خواص مکانیکی ورقه های اپوکسی کربن و مفاصل پیوندی ارائه می دهد. الیاف شیشه ای توخالی درامتداد سطح مشترک لایه-های با ضخامت متوسط در مواد کامپوزیت و درامتداد خط پیوندی در مفاصل کامپوزیت جایگذاری می شوند. اثر افزایش قطر الیاف (تا 680 μm) بر سختی (چقرمگی) لایه لایه شدگی، تنش، تراکم و ویژگی های خستگی مواد کامپوزیت تعیین شده است. اثر قطر الیاف بر خواص مکانیکی مفاصل T نیز تحقیق و بررسی شده است. پیشرفت ها و کمبودهای خواص مکانیکی مواد و مفاصل، مربوط به تغییرات ریزساختاری کامپوزیت و اثرات تمرکز تنش نیز ناشی از الیاف توخالی می باشد. اطلاعات ارائه شده در این مقاله را می توان در طراحی سیستم های خودشفای مجرادار که تاثیر حداقلی بر خواص مکانیکی مواد و مفاصل کامپوزیت دارند، بکاربرد.
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
This paper presents an experimental study into the effect of self-healing hollow fibres on the mechanical properties and delamination resistance of carbon-epoxy composite panels and bonded joints. Hollow fibres made using thin-walled glass tubes are used in microvascular self-healing systems for the storage and transport of liquid reagents for autonomic repair of composite materials. This study shows that hollow fibres located along the mid-thickness plane of the composite material cause no change or a small loss (less than a few per cent) to the in-plane elastic modulus. The tension and compression strengths are not changed when hollow fibres are aligned parallel to the loading direction, but the strength properties are reduced when the fibres are normal to the load. The strength loss is caused by changes to the composite microstructure (e.g. increased ply waviness). The mode I delamination toughness increases with fibre diameter, with improvements up to ∼50%. The tensile (pull-off) strength of composite T-joints is not affected by hollow fibres at the bond-line. However, the fibres increase the failure strain and total work energy-to-failure of the joints up to 100% due to several bond-line toughening processes. The results can be used in the determination of the optimum size and orientation of hollow fibres for vascular self-healing systems in structural composite materials and joints.
Fibre–polymer composite structures are prone to delamination cracking caused by impact, through-thickness loads, edge stresses, environmental degradation and other damaging events. Delamination cracks between the ply layers can severely reduce the structural properties of composite materials, such as reduced compression strength and fatigue life. Delamination damage within bonded composite joints can lower the pull-off strength and fatigue life. Various techniques have been developed to suppress the initiation and/or growth of delamination cracks in composite panels and bonded joints, including toughened resin systems, thermoplastic interleaving, and through-thickness reinforcement by three-dimensional weaving, stitching or pinning. While these techniques are effective at resisting delamination cracking, any damage growth must remain unrepaired until the component is taken out-of-service. A solution to delamination damage is the autonomic repair process of self-healing, which is achieved by dispersing small vessels containing a low viscosity healing fluid and catalyst within the polymer matrix [1–3]. Self-healing basically works by the growing delamination rupturing the vessels and thereby releasing liquid healing agent into the crack. The healing agent is polymerized inside the crack by reacting with the catalyst, which is stored as a fluid in a separate vessel or as solid particles in the matrix. By the appropriate selection and dispersion of the healing agent and catalyst, it is possible to repair cracks and achieve good recovery to the mechanical properties of polymers, polymer coatings and polymer composites (e.g. [1–12]). The original self-healing systems used small capsules to store the liquid healing agent. The capsules are typically 10–500 μm in size, which are dispersed in the polymer matrix to volume contents between about 2% and 20% [2, 3]. There are several limitations in the use of capsules, such as the limited supply of self-healing fluid to repair large cracks and that they are single-use only. There is great interest in hollow fibres for resin transport and storage, which mimic the autonomic healing of living systems with a vascular network system of thin vessels. Microvascular networks using thin, hollow fibres embedded in composite materials mimic the bleeding mechanism in biological systems. When a hollow fibre is fractured the self-healing fluid is released into the crack where it cures and heals the material [2, 3, 13–27]. Toohey et al  demonstrated that vascular systems allow the continuous replenishment of healing fluids to the damaged region from an external supply. This replenishment is not possible with capsules and other closed storage vessels. In addition to selfhealing, hollow fibres can have other functions in composite materials, such as cooling via the transport of cold fluids or sensing using florescent dyes [2, 18, 20, 24]. The hollow fibres are typically 40–200 μm in diameter, although smaller and larger sizes have been used, and fibres are placed at the interface between the ply layers where delamination cracking is most likely to occur. Damaged composites containing hollow glass fibres show good self-healing behaviour and recovery of mechanical properties [3, 21–23, 25–27]. Recent reviews of self-healing repair technology by Keller et al  and Wu et al  identified as a critical issue the effect of storage vessels on the mechanical properties of polymers and composites. A hollow fibre network may adversely affect the mechanical properties of the pre-damaged composite because of stress concentration effects and removal of loadbearing material to accommodate the fibres. However, only a small amount of information is available on the effects of the size, volume fraction, orientation and distribution of hollow fibres on the mechanical properties of polymer composites [22–24, 28, 29]. Trask et al [22, 24] measured a 16% reduction to the flexural strength of a fibre glass laminate containing 60 μm diameter hollow fibres. Williams et al  found that the same sized fibres caused a small loss in flexural strength to carbon-epoxy (under 10%), and concluded that hollow fibres do not appear to act as sites of structural weakness. This paper presents an experimental research study into the effect of hollow fibres used for self-healing on the mechanical properties of carbon-epoxy laminates and bonded joints. Hollow glass fibres were placed along the mid-thickness ply interface in composite materials and along the bond-line in composite joints. The effect of increasing fibre diameter (up to 680 μm) on the delamination toughness, tension, compression and fatigue properties of composite materials was determined. The influence of fibre diameter on the mechanical properties of T-joints was also investigated. Improvements and reductions to the mechanical properties of the materials and joints are related to changes to the composite microstructure and stress concentration effects caused by the hollow fibres. The information presented in this paper can be used in the design of vascular self-healing systems that have minimal impact on the mechanical properties of composite materials and joints.