|عنوان فارسی مقاله:||پيش بيني عوامل خطر بيماري كرونري قلب با استفاده از فرامينگهام نمره خطر در مردان كره اي|
|عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:||Prediction of Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease Using Framingham Risk Score in Korean Men|
|رشته های مرتبط:||پزشکی، تربیت بدنی، قلب و عروق، علوم تغذیه، فیزیولوژی فعالیت بدنی و تندرستی|
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Background: Currently, there is sparse data available on the relationship between coronary heart disease (CHD) and its risk factors estimated by the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) in Korea. This is particularly true when looking at risk factors of CHD associated with the FRS after adjustment for other covariates especially in healthy subjects. Methodology/Principal Findings: We conducted a prospective cohort study to examine the association between the risk factors of CHD and the risk for CHD estimated by FRS in 15,239 men in 2005 and 2010. The FRS is based on six coronary risk factors: gender, age, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure (BP), and smoking habit. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the relationships between the FRS and risk factors for CHD. This study reported that apolipoproetein B (apoB), apoA-I, apoB/apoA-I, alcohol intake, log-transformed TG, log-transformed hsCRP, LDL-cholesterol, hypertension, diabetes, regular exercise, and BMI were significantly associated with the FRS. Above all, the partial R-square of apoB was 14.77%, which was overwhelmingly bigger than that of other variables in model V. This indicated that apoB accounted for 14.77% of the variance in FRS. Conclusion/Significance: In this study, apoB was found to be the most important determinant for the future development of CHD during a 5-year follow-up in healthy Korean men.
Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia have been regarded as established predictors of cardiovascular disease. Life style risk factors including dietary habits, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol intake, stress, and obesity are strongly associated with established cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease [1–3]. Apolipoproteins are important structural and functional proteins in lipoprotein particles, which transport lipids. Apolipoproteins also regulate the synthesis and metabolism of lipoprotein particles and stabilize their structure . Measurement and calculation of the apolipoprotein B (apoB) and apoB/apoA-I ratio may improve the prediction of risk for cardiovascular disease, as it represents the balance between proatherogenic and antiatherogenic lipoproteins . The reduction of risk factors for cardiovascular disease can prevent the incidence of the cardiovascular diseases . There are many studies and programs on the prevention of cardiovascular risk. Estimates of cardiovascular risk in healthy population are usually calculated from risk prediction models derived from prospective and observational studies [7–9]. The Framingham Risk Score (FRS) is a traditionally used algorithm in primary prevention strategies for the assessment of 10-year risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) events in middle-aged, asymptomatic individuals [7,10]. Recently, several studies have reported that other risk factors for CHD were associated with the FRS [11,12]. However, as far as we know, there is sparse data available on the relationships between CHD and its risk factors estimated by the FRS in Korea and especially how the risk factors for CHD is associated with the FRS after adjustment for other covariates in particularly healthy subjects. Therefore, the present study examines the risk factors related with the FRS in healthy Korean men. We also intend to identify which is the most important contribution to the risk of CHD estimated by FRS.
Materials and Methods
Study design and subjects
A prospective cohort study was conducted to examine the risk factors for CHD in healthy Korean men who were employed at various companies in Korea. All employees participated in an annual health examination, as is required by Korea’s Industrial Safety and Health law. The study population consisted of individuals who had comprehensive health examinations at baseline (2005) and were reexamined 5 year later (2010) at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Initially 15,497 individuals were identified. Among the initial 15,497 individuals, 258 were excluded for various reasons: 193 were taking lipid-lowering medication at their initial examinations; 38 had past histories of malignancies; 27 had past histories of cardiac problems (angina and myocardial infarction). After these exclusions, 15,239 men were enrolled in this analysis and were observed for relationships between risk factors for CHD and FRS (Figure 1). Each participant provided written informed consent when checking the questionnaire and ethics approvals for the study protocol. Analysis of the data was obtained from the institutional review board of College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University Hospital (Ethics Committee reference number C2011125(575)) in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki principles.
Clinical and laboratory measurements
Initial health examinations that were performed in 2005 included medical histories, physical examinations, questionnaires about health-related behavior, anthropometric measurements, and biochemical measurements. Medical history and history of drug prescription was assessed by the examining physicians. All the participants were asked to respond to a questionnaire on healthrelated behavior. Questions about alcohol intake included the frequency of alcohol consumption on a weekly basis and the usual amount that was consumed on a daily basis ($20 g/day). We considered persons reporting that they smoked at that time to be current smokers. In addition, the participants were asked about their weekly frequency of physical activity, such as jogging, bicycling, and swimming that lasted long enough to produce perspiration ($1 time/week). Hypertension was defined as either taking antihypertensive agents or having blood pressure of $140/ 90 mmHg. Diabetes was defined by current use of blood glucose– lowering agents or fasting blood glucose level of $126 mg/dL. Blood samples were collected after more than 12 hours of fasting and were drawn from an antecubital vein. The serum levels of fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were measured using the Bayer Reagent Packs on an automated chemistry analyzer (ADVIA 1650TM Autoanalyzer, Bayer HealthCare Ltd., Tarrytown, NY, USA). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was measured by immunonephelometry (Dade Behring Co., Marburg, Germany), and apoA-I and apoB was measured by rate nephelometry (Beckman Instruments, Fullerton, CA, USA). Distribution of values was assessed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for normality of distribution. Because the values of hsCRP and TG were skewed to the right, its logtransformed data were used in multiple linear regression analysis. Trained nurses obtained sitting blood pressure (BP) levels with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. The first and fifth Korotkoff sounds were used to estimate the systolic BP and the diastolic BP. Height and weight were measured after an overnight fast with the subjects wearing lightweight hospital gowns and no shoes. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight (kg) divided by the height (m) squared.