|عنوان فارسی مقاله:||اندازه مقدار هیدروکربن های آروماتیک چند حلقه ای در روغن های خوراکی و مواد غذایی کبابی شده توسط HPLC / UV-VIS تشخیص داده می شود.|
|عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:||Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible oils and barbecued food by HPLC/UV–Vis detection|
|رشته های مرتبط:||شیمی، زیست شناسی، صنایع غذایی، فناوری مواد غذایی، شیمی تجزیه، علوم گیاهی علوم مواد غذایی|
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|نشریه||الزویر – Elsevier|
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Determination of nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in corn, sunflower, olive oils and barbecued meat and fish by HPLC/UV–Vis method is described. The extraction procedure included a saponification, liquid–liquid extraction and finally purification of PAHs through a house-made silica–alumina column. Chromatographic determination was based on separation of PAHs on ODS column and measurement at 254 nm. All polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were separated and analyzed in 12 min on reversed phase ODS column with acetonitrile/water mobile phase at 1.5 mL min1 flow rate. The detection limits of nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ranged from 0.26 to 1.15 µg L1 at a signal/noise ratio of 3. The linearity of the method was between 0.9951 and 0.9996. Oil samples contain different PAHs ranging from 0.44 to 98.92 µgL1 . Barbecuing process increased the concentration (in the range of 2- to 8-fold) and caused the formation of PAHs in food samples.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) constitute a large class of organic compounds that are composed of two or more fused aromatic rings. They are primarily formed through incomplete combustion or pyrolysis of organic matter and during various industrial processes. At high temperature, organic compounds are partially cracked to smaller unstable fragments (pyrolysis), mostly radicals, which recombine to give relatively stable PAHs (Lee, Novotny, & Bartle, 1981). PAHs are also formed as a result of certain food preparation methods, for instance grilling, roasting and smoking. The highest PAH concentrations are usually found in charcoal grilled/barbecued foods (especially meat and meat products grilled under prolonged and severe conditions), foods smoked by traditional techniques (fish in particular), mussels and other seafood from polluted waters (Farhadian, Jinap, Abas, & Sakar, 2010; Guillen, Sopelana, & Partearroyo, 1997; Phillips, 1999; Stolyhwo & Sikorski, 2005; Stumpe-Viksna, Bartkevics, Kukare, & Morozovs, 2008). Different routes of PAHs contamination in edible oils and food have been suggested. Seed drying processes, environmental contamination, such as deposition of airborne particulates on crops or growth in contaminated soil, technological processing or home-cooking, such as grilling and smoking can be responsible for major PAHs contamination of some edible oils and food (Dennis et al., 1991; Farhadian et al., 2010; Larsson, Eriksson, & Cervenka, 1987; Moret & Conte, 2000; Purcaro, Morrison, Moret, Conte, & Marriott, 2007). Smoked and grilled food may contribute signifi- cantly to the intake of PAHs, if such foods are a large part of the usual diet. For example, grilled/barbecued meat was the second highest contributor, after the ‘‘bread, cereal and grain’’ group, in a U.S. study (Butler, Post, Lioy, Waldman, & Greenberg, 1993; Rey-Salgueiro, Garcia-Falcon, Martinez-Carball, & Simal-Gandara, 2008). A number of PAHs have been shown to be genotoxic carcinogens. In 2002, the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) reviewed PAH toxicity (SCF, 2002). For 15 compounds it concluded that there was clear evidence for their toxicity. In 2005, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) performed a risk assessment on PAHs, basically agreed with the SCF selection, downgraded one substance from the SCF list and nominated one further compound for observation in food (JECFA, 2005). The combined list nominated by either SCF or JECFA would thus comprise of 16 substances as priority PAHs: benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[j]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[- ghi]perylene, benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, cyclopenta[cd]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, 5-methylchrysene and benzo[c]fluorene (EFSA, 2008a; IRAC, 2009). There will also be brief mention of other nine compounds tested by Member States, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, benzo[bjk]fluoranthene, fluoranthene, fluorene, naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene (EFSA, 2008b).Benzo[a]pyrene may be used as a marker of occurrence and effect of the carcinogenic PAHs in food, based on examinations of PAH profiles in food and on evaluation of a recent carcinogenicity study of coal tars in mice (EFSA, 2008a, 2008b; SCF, 2002; WHO, 2005). A conservative assessment would imply that the carcinogenic potency of total PAHs content in foods products would be 10 times of that contributed by benzo[a]pyrene alone. The Committee however stressed that though, it considers benzo[a]pyrene as a marker of carcinogenic PAH in food, chemical analyses should continue to collect data on the whole PAHs profile in order to be able to evaluate the contamination of food commodities and any future change in the PAHs profile. In view of disparities caused by different maximum levels for PAHs in food in several Member States, the European Commission set harmonized maximum level of 2.0 lg kg1 of benzo[a]pyrene in foodstuff containing fats and oils (EFSA, 2008a). The level is set for food for infants and young children. (EFSA, 2008a, 2008b; SCF, 2002; Zougagh, Redigolo, Rios, & Valcarcel, 2004). Gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography are the most used chromatographic techniques for separation and quantification of PAHs in different kinds of foodstuffs. HPLC with fluorometric detection in mussels (Serpe, Esposito, Gallo, & Serpe, 2010), in propolis (Moret, Purcaro, & Conte, 2010), in grilled meat (Farhadian et al., 2010), in infant foods and toasted bread (Rey-Salgueiro et al., 2008; Rey-Salgueiro, Martinez-Carballo, Garcia-Falcon, Gonzalez-Barreiro, & Simal-Gandara, 2009), in distilled alcoholic beverage (Tfouni et al., 2007), in milk (Kishikawa, Wada, Kuroda, Akiyama, & Nakashima, 2003), in grape seed oil (Moret, Dudine, & Conte, 2000), in edible oil (Barranco et al., 2003), in vegetable oil (Zougagh et al., 2004); with UV detection in industrial waste oil (Domeno & Nerin, 2003) and gas chromatography with mass spectroscopic detection in smoked fish (StumpeViksna et al., 2008), in olive oil (Purcaro et al., 2007), in fishing settlement (Anyakora, Ogbeche, Palmer, & Coker, 2005), in electrical insulating oils (Kim et al., 2001), in transformer oil (Pillai et al., 2005) have been successfully applied for the determination of PAHs. PAHs have attracted most attention because of their carcinogenic potential. Since, edible oils and barbecued food are the daily consumed foodstuff, the level of PAHs should be determined. The aim of the work was to optimize an analytical method that could be used in most analytical laboratories for the determination and investigation the levels of the PAHs in oils and barbecued food and studying the effect of barbecuing on increasing and forming of PAHs during cooking process. We developed a HPLC method with an UV–Vis detection for the determination of nine PAHs (three have been remarked as genotoxic carcinogens by both SCF and JECFA and six by other Member States (EFSA, 2008b); fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[b]fluorene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene in oils and barbecued food. The method was validated by calculating linear range, coefficient of determination, accuracy, repeatability, detection limits and quantification limits. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of PAHs in oil, raw and barbecued food samples.