|عنوان فارسی مقاله:||شبیه سازی نانو (Nano-sim)، مبتنی بر شبیه سازی شبکه های نانو الکترومغناتیس در شبیه ساز شبکه NS-3|
|عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:||Nano-Sim: simulating electromagnetic-based nanonetworks in the Network Simulator 3|
|رشته های مرتبط:||مهندسی فناوری اطلاعات، مهندسی برق، فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات، فناوری نانو، شبکه های مخابراتی، برق مخابرات، دیتا، مهندسی کنترل، مهندسی الکترونیک، سامانه های شبکه ای، مکاترونیک و شبکه های کامپیوتری|
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The progress of nanotechnology is paving the way to the emerging concept of wireless nanosensor network (WNSN). In fact, it is now possible to create integrated machines at the nano scale, which interact on cooperative basis using wireless communications. The research in this field is still in an embryonal stage and the design of the WNSN protocol suite represents a fundamental issue to address. Therefore, an open source simulation framework for WNSN would be highly beneficial to let research activities converge towards participated design methodologies. In an our recent work, we presented a new NS-3 module, namely Nano-Sim, modeling WNSNs based on electromagnetic communications in the Terahertz band. In its preliminary version, Nano-Sim provides a simple network architecture and a protocol suite for such an emerging technology. In this paper, we significantly improved our previous work in several directions. First, we have extended the tool by developing a new routing algorithm and a more efficient MAC protocol. Moreover, focusing the attention on a WNSN operating in a health monitoring scenario, we have investigated how the density of nodes, the transmission range of nanomachines, and the adoption of specific combinations of routing and MAC strategies may affect the network behavior. Finally, a study on Nano-Sim computational requirements has been also carried out, thus demonstrating how the developed module guarantees great achievements in terms of scalability.
In upcoming years, the innovation process triggered by nanotechnologies is expected to foster the development of integrated devices, also known in literature as nanomachines (or nanodevices), with size ranging from one to few hundred of nanometers, very well suited for ICT, biomedical, industrial, and military applications . Due to its limited capabilities, a nanodevice may only execute simple sensing, computing, actuation, and information storage tasks, but this limit can be overcome considering more nanodevices operating in a coordinated fashion and communicating each other . In this way, the overall capability of many of them can be strong enough to create a wireless nanosensor network (WNSN), which can be very useful in several domains. However, the way information should be exchanged at the nano scale has not yet been defined once for all. Indeed, even if four different communication modes (i.e., nanomechanical, acoustic, molecular, and electromagnetic) have been presented in literature, only those based on molecular diffusion and electromagnetic (EM) radiation seem to be the most suitable for really building a WNSN . The former supposes that nanodevices will be equipped with transceivers able to encode information in molecules, whereas, the latter is based on the transmission and the reception of EM waves. We remark that the research on nanonetworks is still ongoing and, for the time being, it has been mainly focused on the characterization of the channel at the nano scale. Important contributions are provided in  and , where sophisticated models for both molecular and EM communications as well as the estimation of the maximum channel capacity have been discussed. Today research, starting from these significant results, as well as considering the general architectural guidelines in , is exploring protocol stacks, network architectures, and channel access procedures that could be adopted later on when the technology will be ready to the market. In this context, a flexible simulation tool would be highly beneficial to support and let research activities converge towards common goals. At the time of this writing, several tools, such as NanoNS , N3Sim , and the one proposed in , have been explicitly conceived for diffusionbased molecular communications. However, we have re- cently presented in  an open source simulator for EMbased nanonetworks, namely Nano-Sim, developed within the Network Simulator 3 (NS-3) platform1. Despite this module poses the basis for the design and the evaluation of more complex network architectures, protocols, and algorithms related to WNSNs, it offers a protocol stack composed by a very simple Media Access Control (MAC), a routing module based on the selective flooding strategy, and a generic unit for generating and processing messages. In this paper we notably improved our previous contribution in several directions. First of all we extended NanoSim by implementing a more efficient MAC layer and a new random routing algorithm. The selective flooding routing scheme has been ameliorated in order to avoid duplicate forward operations of the same packet, thus preventing an excessive waste of bandwidth. In addition, we carried out a more thorough performance evaluation of a healthmonitoring scenario where nanodevices are diffused into an artery for collecting information about chemical particles and biological functions. In this study, several relevant features have been analyzed to highlight the impact of the density of nodes, the way the transmission range of nanomachines may affect the behavior of the monitoring system, and the performance gain deriving from the adoption of specific combinations of routing and MAC strategies. Finally, a significant scalability study on the computational requirements of Nano-Sim has been also conducted. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Sec. 2 describes Nano-Sim as well as summarizes open issues related to WNSNs. The performance evaluation of a health-care system, as well as the scalability test, have been presented in Sec. 3. Finally, Sec. 4 draws the conclusions and discusses planned upgrades of the proposed module.