|عنوان فارسی مقاله:||تجزیه تحلیل عملکرد سیستم تولید برق از منابع زمین گرمایی سنگ های داغ خشک بر اساس چرخه کالینا|
|عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:||Performance analysis on a hot dry rock geothermal resource power generation system based on Kalina cycle|
|رشته های مرتبط:||مهندسی برق، مهندسی انرژی، تولید، انتقال و توزیع، انرژی های تجدیدپذیر و فناوری انرژی|
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|نشریه||الزویر – Elsevier|
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Based on the conventional Kalina cycle, a hot dry rock geothermal resource power generation system is recommended in this paper. To predict the system performance, the corresponding thermal calculation model is established. A high pressure condenser and a low pressure condenser are used to condense the working fluid(Ammonia-water mixture) and the basic fluid in the recommended system, respectively, and a regenerator is adopted to recover part of exhaust heat of the turbine, at the same time to provide energy for the separation of ammonia-water mixture. The parameter performance analyses are carried out on the system. Results show that both the thermal efficiency and dynamic power recovery increase with elevation of heat source temperature, the dynamic recovery efficiency varies in the range of 8.5-18 percent, in the heat source temperature range of 150-220ć, and the geothermal recovery efficiency varies in the range of 86 to 88 percent. A relative low basic solution concentration and a high working fluid concentration is helpful to improve the system efficiency under the satisfied separation condition. The minor variation of the system efficiency with variation of circulating ratio indicates that the vary of circulating ratio due to the environmental elements will not cause greet effect on system performance.
Hot dry rock, as a kind of huge geothermal resources, buried deep underground 2-6 km, has attracted much attention in recent years. It widely distributed in the depths of the earth with temperature in the range of 150 ć to 650 ć. The thermal energy reserves of hot dry rock in the earth are huge. Studies have shown that it contains nearly 10 billion quarts of thermal energy even in shallow hot dry rock area, it is 300 times more heat of the fossil fuels (coal, gas and oil) on the earth [1-5]. Hot dry rock can be used for heating or power generation. The concept of hot dry rock power generation is firstly put forward by Los Alamos laboratory at university of California in the 1970s . The basic idea is to establish an artificial heat reservoir through the water pressure blasting or other methods in the dense underground hot dry rock area. Then, the cold water on the ground is injected into the heat reservoir to obtain heat energy, the obtained hot water or vapor is then extracted out of the ground to generate power. In 1970, the first hot dry rock mining test was successfully realized in the United States. In recent years, through the efforts of all countries and international cooperation, Japan, Germany, the United States and other developed countries successfully tested hot dry rock power generation systems, the relevant technologies are tested and mastered [7-10]. In addition, the power generation capacity of the pilot system continues to increase, from 3 MW to 11 MW. Certainly, there are still a lot of work to do to achieve commercial operation and development of this technology. How to use the hot dry rock resources effectively, optimize the hot dry rock power generation system, and improve the efficiency of the system are still the problems need to be solved. Kalina cycle was proposed by Alexander Kalina  in 1984 to replace the traditional thermodynamic cycle (such as Rankine cycle) as the bottom cycle in combined power cycle system of low temperature heat source. It has been proved that Kalina cycle can achieve a higher power output from a specified geothermal heat source when compared with organic Rankine cycle [12-16]. The ammonia-water mixture is used as the working fluid in Kalina cycle, which results in a better heat transfer matching relations in medium or low temperature source applications due to the non isothermal phase change process of the medium and the medium concentration changes in circulation. Due to the relative lower critical temperature of ammonia-water mixture compared with pure water, it has been proved that the Kalina cycle has more advantages in medium or low temperature heat source applications, such as geothermal power , solar power generation [18,19], recovery of industrial waste heat, as a bottom cycle of generating unit [21-23], as well as used as circulating system of electric-cold cogeneration unit . The water or vapor temperature out of the production well of hot dry rock system is in the range of 150 ć to 250 ć. It is belonging to low temperature heat source, and is particularly suited for Kalina cycle power generation. The literature survey shows that although great efforts have been done for hot dry rock power generation and Kalina cycle power generation, respectively, the hot dry rock power generation system based on Kalina cycle is not existed. In this paper, a hot dry rock power generation system model based on conventional Kalina cycle is recommended. Through thermodynamics analysis, the system performances are analyzed theoretically. The effect of major operation parameters on system thermal performances are discussed comprehensively.