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|عنوان فارسی مقاله:||اثر فعل و انفعالات مبتنی بر دوده بر روی ویسکوالاستیسیته خطی و غیر خطی آمیزه های SBR پخت شده و پخت نشده|
|عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:||The Effects of Carbon Black-based Interactions on the Linear and Non-linear Viscoelasticity of Uncured and Cured SBR Compounds|
|رشته های مرتبط:||شیمی، مهندسی مواد، مهندسی پلیمر، مهندسی مواد مرکب، شیمی آلی|
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The role of carbon black (CB) in the viscoelastic behaviour of rubber compounds was investigated to better understand the reinforcing mechanism. The influence of CB nanoparticles on the strain-dependency and relaxation phenomena of several styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) compounds was evaluated using rubberprocess-analyzer (RPA). Rheological results of uncured samples showed that reduced complex modulus with strain strongly depend on CB-rubber interactions. Filled master compounds showed greater modulus compared to raw SBR, which dropped rather abruptly; meaning more noticeable non-linear viscoelastic behaviour. The observed trend of damping factor recognized the linear viscoelastic behaviour for strain <15%, however, at higher strains a large positive deviation was noticed. In the strain region under 15%, CB-filled rubber showed more elastic behaviour than gum; more elastic as the CB loading increased while in the non-linear zone, the reverse trend was observed. Torsion relaxation modulus based on standard linear solid (SLS) model was plotted and found disputable changes regarding to varied factors. Both values of relaxed modulus and the relaxation slope increased as the functions of CB surface area and content, and also the relaxation time (τ) shifted to higher values. In addition, CB affected the cure characteristics and after cure relaxation. In the cured compounds, the slope of relaxed modulus was steeper at starting time (~0.01 s) and less steep at longer time than those of the master compound, reaching a considerable set at the end of relaxation which was dependent on CB level and size.
Generally for formulation of the rubber compounds, carbon black (CB) is incorporated in rubber matrix as a reinforcement to modify the mechanical properties of finished product and to control the viscoelastic behaviour of the compound during process, before curing. The addition of CB into the elastomers is a significant commercial importance to improve the technical properties. In the presence of CB, the elastic modulus (G´) of rubber compound increases due to high modulus of CB as a filler and formation of CB-rubber strong interactions. Depending on formulation and compound mixing conditions, CB can be found in different dispersion states, from large agglomerates to small aggregates . Concentration and type of CB affect dispersion of CB in the rubber matrix significantly. The status of CB agglomerates and resulting interactions can control the properties and viscoelastic parameters of the compound. The influence of CB on the viscoelasticity [2,3], processability  and extrudate swelling  of filled elastomers have been investigated. Normally, CB-filled rubber compounds have an ability to dissipate the main part of the mechanical energy applied during deformation by damping which depends on CB-CB and CB-rubber interactions. Damping factor can be studied performing the strain sweep test in dynamic mode. As a response to increasing strain, rubber compounds exhibit a non-linear viscoelastic behaviour named Payne effect , which is detected as a drop in elastic modulus versus strain related to the reinforcing effect of CB  or the changes in the conditions such as temperature . In addition, tan δ (G ″/G ′) increases when the strain rises, recognizing that the energy of dynamic deformation is dissipated.