|عنوان فارسی مقاله||یادگیری خودآموز در آموزش پرستاری: بررسی مروری مقالات|
|عنوان انگلیسی مقاله||Self-directed learning in nurse education: a review of the literature|
|رشته های مرتبط||علوم تربیتی، تکنولوژی آموزشی، مدیریت و برنامه ریزی آموزشی|
|کلمات کلیدی||یادگیری خودآموز، آموزش پرستار، ترجیح سبک یادگیری، آمادگی، تسهیل|
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|مجله||مسائل و نوآوری در آموزش پرستاری – ISSUES AND INNOVATIONS IN NURSING EDUCATION|
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تعریف یادگیری خودگردان
در اصل،Iwasiw یادگیری خودگردانی را یک نوع مطالعه می داند که در آن افراد مسئولیت برنامه ریزی، اجرای و ارزیابی کار خود را دارند.
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
Nurses operate in a complex health care environment where social, technological and medical changes present them with challenges, and nurse education has a vital role to play in ensuring that they can adapt and respond to these challenges (Majumdar 1999). Traditionally didactic methods of teaching have predominated in nurse education. However, it is no longer satisfactory to teach in this manner (Nolan & Nolan 1997a), and current nursing programmes increasingly place an emphasis on adult education, including self-directed learning. It is beneficial to provide students with the skills to seek, analyse and utilize information effectively, and nurse educators have a role to play in aiding nurses to acquire these skills (Lunyk-Child et al. 2001). Nurses unable to direct their own learning will not have the skills necessary to meet the changes in modern health care. In order to facilitate the acquisition of the skills for selfdirected learning, nurse educators need to familiarize themselves with the concept. This review aims to explore the concept of self-directed learning and its use in nurse education.
A computer search was conducted using the CINAHL, MEDLINE and combined RCN/BNI/Worldwide Nursing Information databases. The following keywords were used: ‘self-directed learning’, ‘student nurses’, ‘classroom’, ‘nursing education’ and ‘adult education’. Abstracts from citations were read for suitability, which resulted in the identification of only 24 published research reports within the nursing field. Bibliographies of all retrieved articles were examined for additional studies. The majority of the literature emanated from the United States of America (USA), Canada and Australia. It is important to acknowledge that the majority of nursing research reports in relation to self-directed learning date from the 1980s. However, since then nurse education has undergone considerable change and nurse educators today increasingly seek to incorporate principles of adult education and student-centred learning in nursing curricula.
Findings The literature reviewed will be presented under the following headings: definition of self-directed learning, nature of self-directed learning, learning styles and ability to be selfdirected, maturity and stage of education, readiness for self-directed learning, facilitating self-directed learning and benefits of self-directed learning.
Definition of self-directed learning
The definition of self-directed learning varies throughout the literature. Self-directed learning is customarily contrasted with teacher-directed learning and is exemplified by the fact that the learner decides what, how, where and when to learn (Race 1990). The most common definition is that of Knowles (1975) as follows: a process in which individuals take the initiative, with or without the help of others, in diagnosing their learning needs, formulating learning goals, identifying human and material resources for learning, choosing and implementing appropriate learning strategies and evaluating learning outcomes (p. 18). Iwasiw (1987), developing the work of Knowles (1975), outlines five characteristics of self-directed learning and suggests that students are responsible for: • identifying their own learning needs, • determining their learning objectives, • deciding how to evaluate learning outcomes, • identifying and pursuing learning resources and strategies, • evaluating the end product of learning. In essence, Iwasiw (1987) considers self-directed learning to be a form of study in which individuals have responsibility for planning, implementing and evaluating their own work. Hammond and Collins (1991) criticize Knowles’ definition as placing insufficient emphasis on developing critical awareness and encouraging social action. Despite this, Knowles’ definition appears to form the basis of many others. For example, Spencer and Jordan (1999) define self-directed learning as: when students take the initiative for their own learning, diagnosing needs, formulating goals, identifying resources, implementing appropriate activities and evaluating outcomes (p. 1281). D’A Slevin and Lavery (1991) contend that definitions of self-directed learning are ambiguous and that the concept means different things to different people. However, the key feature of definitions in the literature is that they describe a process of learning based on the principles of adult education (Nolan & Nolan 1997a). Furthermore, what also appears common to most definitions is the notion of some personal control by the learner over the planning and management of the learning.